The influence of symptomatic anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer on short and long-term mortality and local and distant recurrence was analysed.
All patients with a first diagnosis of rectal carcinoma were prospectively registered in a national database. This comprised 1494 Danish citizens who had had a curative AR between May 2001 and December 2004. Data on survival and recurrence were obtained from the National Patient Register. Multivariate analyses were performed.
Anastomotic leakage increased the 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) 4.01 (95% CI 2.24-7.17)]. Of other possible risk factors, only age had a significant interaction with leakage, as the risk of death within 30 days of AR decreased with increasing age. Long-term survival decreased significantly after AL [hazard ratio (HR) of 1.63, CI 1.21-2.19]. A total of 97 (6.7%) and 258 (18.0%) patients had local and distant recurrence respectively in the follow-up period. The risk of local and distant recurrence after AL was not different with HR of 1.50 (CI 0.84-2.69) and 1.13 (CI 0.76-1.69) respectively. No other factors influenced the risk of recurrence due to AL.
Anastomotic leakage after AR for rectal cancer increases the 30-day and long-term mortality, but AL did not increase the risk of local and distant recurrence.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
BACKGROUND: The exact role of factors such as serum lipids, body mass index and (micro-)albuminuria as possible determinants of diabetic retinopathy remains to be determined. We have scrutinized the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its concomitants in terms of risk factors and other diabetic complications in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,251 newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over was established in general practice. Median age was 65.3 years. Funduscopy was performed by practising ophthalmologists. Blood and urine analyses were centralised. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 5.0%. Only three patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. As expected, diabetic retinopathy and renal involvement, as expressed by the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. were strongly positively associated. An intriguing finding was that of an inverse relationship between fasting triglycerides and diabetic retinopathy, an association that proved to be confined to microalbuminuric patients. An inverse association between body mass index and diabetic retinopathy was found only univariately. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of diabetic retinopathy cannot be explained by the screening method alone, but rather by early detection of diabetes in a non-selective patient sample. It seems that renal involvement modifies the expected relationship between diabetic retinopathy and triglycerides, but a pathophysiological mechanism is not available.
We report on a study in which 487 Danish general practitioners participated with the purpose of including all newly-diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or more from a well-defined catchment population during a well-defined time period. A total of 1267 diabetic patients with a median age of 65.3 years were included. Renal involvement was assessed from the albumin/creatinine ratio in a morning urine sample. Albumin/creatinine ratio was or = 20 mg/mmol in 59.8/33.6/6.6% of male and 66.6/28.8/4.6% of female patients. The level of albumin/creatinine ratio increased with age and the observed overall male predominance was almost confined to diabetic patients with an albumin/creatinine ratio of 5 mg/mmol or greater. By taking into account the confounding effect of age and sex, a positive association between smoking and albumin/creatinine ratio was disclosed. Moreover, high systolic blood pressure, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia (males only) and high HbA1c, but not body mass index or diastolic blood pressure were identified as correlates of elevated albumin/creatinine ratio. Glucosuria was positively correlated with albumin/creatinine ratio even when the influence of HbA1c, sex and age was taken into account. A positive correlation between serum creatinine and albumin/creatinine ratio was seen in males, but not in females. In addition, renal involvement was associated with the presence of peripheral angiopathy and diabetic retinopathy and with high resting heart rate. The cross-sectional data presented highlight the importance of reducing the overall burden of modifiable risk factors in newly-diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients.
The trend in the prognosis for female breast cancer patients was investigated by comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves of different patient cohorts diagnosed during the period 1948-87. The study is based on 71,448 patients from the Danish Cancer Registry. The cohorts were defined by age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and residential area. The survival time from diagnosis nearly doubled from 1948-57 to 1978-87, the most important improvement taking place after 1978. Patients diagnosed in 1948-77 in the Copenhagen area had a far better prognosis than patients diagnosed during this period in other parts of Denmark. For patients diagnosed in 1978-87 the prognosis, however, reached an equal level in all parts of the country. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the national programme introduced in 1977 by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has played an important role and not only brought about therapeutic improvements in breast cancer treatment in Denmark, but also ensured equity in the outcome on a national scale.
AIMS: To study how structure and process of care is associated with outcome assessed by HbA(1c). METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional study originated from the nationwide Danish Registry for Childhood Diabetes and two questionnaires. One questionnaire was sent to all children under 16 years of age with Type 1 diabetes in the year 2000 (N = 1087, response rate 80%). Another questionnaire was sent to the 19 centres in Denmark treating these children (response rate 100%). Simultaneously the children were asked to take a blood sample for central HbA(1c) analysis. Linear mixed models were used for analysis of associations between structure and process indicators and HbA(1c). Age, diabetes duration, sex, ethnicity, family structure and parents' occupational status were included as patient factors possibly affecting HbA(1c). RESULTS: More visits to the outpatient clinic and higher insulin dosage were significantly associated with higher HbA(1c) (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring (BGM/week) and completed nephropathy screening were significantly associated with lower HbA(1c) value (estimates -0.008 and -0.49, P = 0.02, respectively). The structure indicators were not associated with HbA(1c), but telephone hot-line was positively associated with the process indicator BGM (estimate 4.02, P = 0.04). Children without Danish parents performed BGM significantly less frequently (-7.11, P = 0.0005) and had higher HbA(1c) (0.41, P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Most process indicators were significantly associated with HbA(1c), indicating relevant action of staff on glucose regulation. The structure indicators were not associated with outcome, necessitating more detailed studies on the influence of staffing resources, treatment strategies and targets in childhood diabetes management.
The 5- to 6-year all-cause mortality is analyzed in 1323 newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over. The median age at diagnosis is lower for men (63.6 years) than for women (67.5 years), but more men (24.7%) than women (20.0%) have died (p = 0.04). This male excess mortality can be attributed mainly to the 60- to 79-year-old men. With increasing diabetes duration, both male and female diabetic patients exhibit an increasing excess mortality in comparison with the Danish population. For men, this excess mortality becomes statistically significant 4 years after diagnosis for the 40- to 59-year-old patient and 6 years after diagnosis for the 60- to 79-year-old patient. For women and very old men, no statistically significant excess mortality is observed. After 2-4 years, however, there is a tendency for the survival curve of 40- to 79-year-old women to separate from that of the Danish female population to show an excess mortality. In this population-based study, the disadvantageous mortality experience of even newly diagnosed diabetic patients is clearly demonstrated.
The five- to six-year all-cause mortality is analysed in 1323 newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over. The median age at diagnosis is lower for males (63.6 years) than for females (67.5 years), but more males (24.7%) than females (20.0%) have died (p = 0.04). This male excess mortality can mainly be attributed to the 60-79-year old males. With increasing diabetes duration both male and female diabetic patients exhibit an increasing excess mortality in comparison with the Danish population. For males this excess mortality becomes statistically significant four years after diagnosis for the 40-59 year-olds and after six years for the 60-79 year-olds. For females and very old males no statistically significant excess mortality is observed, but after two to four years there is a tendency for the survival curve of 40-79-year old females to separate from that of the Danish female population to show an excess mortality. In this population-based study the disadvantageous mortality experience of even newly-diagnosed diabetic patients is clearly demonstrated.
The trend in the prognosis of female patients with breast cancer has been investigated by comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves of different patient cohorts diagnosed during the period 1948-87. The study is based on 71,448 patients from the Danish Cancer Registry. The cohorts were defined by age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis and residential area. The survival time from diagnosis to death nearly doubled from 1948-57 to 1978-87 with the most important improvement taking place after 1978. Patients diagnosed in 1948-77 in the Copenhagen area had a far better prognosis than patients during this period in the rest of the country. For patients diagnosed in 1978-87 the prognosis, however, reached an equal level in all parts of the country. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the national programme introduced in 1977 by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has played an important role in these improvements.
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Feb 20;157(8):10487879308
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 May 1;157(18):2587-87778245
Diagnostic mammographic activity was studied in five regions in Denmark in 1990-1991. During this period there was only one organized mammography screening programme which started in the Copenhagen municipality on 1 April 1991. It is estimated that 49,000 diagnostic mammographic examinations were made in Denmark per year in the period 1990-1991. Almost two-thirds of these mammograms were taken in women below 50 years of age. It is important to monitor the diagnostic mammographic activity to ensure that this does not gradually develop into a screening activity. This is in particular important for women below 50 years for whom screening is not recommended.