The paper is concerned with the main stages of scientific activity of R.V. Chagovets (1904-1982). Member Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in the field of biochemistry of muscles, metabolism and biochemical functions of vitamins and their derivatives. The creative heredity of the scientist served as a theoretical ground of the present-day vitaminology, base for development of the nutrition theory, practical recommendations and suggestions in public health and husbandry opened the pathways for experimental solution of the problems concerning vitamin and coenzyme metabolism regulation, elucidation of molecular mechanisms of vitamin and coenzyme functioning in the cell.
The NAD-glycohydrolase activity of freshly isolated adult rat liver cells nuclei was studied as affected by the ionic (dodecyl sulphate and deoxicholate) and non-ionic (Triton X-100 and digitonin) detergents as well as by ultrasound (15 and 22 kHz). The obtained data permit the detergents to be divided according to the character of their effects on the nuclear NADase activity into "decreasing" and "increasing" ones. Dodecyl sulphate and to a less extent deoxicholate are in the first group of the detergents. Triton X-100 and much more digitonin are in the second one. Sonification of the rat liver cells nuclei (15 and 22 kHz) from 3-10 s and further induced a decrease in the NADase activity with its subsequent complete loss. The treatment of the intact nuclei suspension with DNase leads to a 50% decrease in the NADase activity and the treatment of the sonificated nuclei suspension-- to a complete loss of the activity. Undet these conditions RNase does not affect the NADase activity.
An intensified synthesis of glucose is observed in gluconeogenesis from endogenous precursor only for the first 30 min of perfusion. Pyruvate introduction into the medium raises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activities in the liver and determines maintenance of the glucose formation high rate for 90 min of perfusion. 1,3-butanediol is found to have a stimulating effect on gluconeogenesis from pyruvate. Introduction of 1,3 bytanediol into perfusate decreases the redox state of free NAD-pairs, increases the content of phosphoenolpyruvate, malate. ATP and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose-1.6-diphosphatase activity in the perfused liver.