The improvement of prophylaxis and the decrease of morbidity rate in hepatitis B are possible on the basis of the introduction of the information subsystem of epidemiological surveillance into practical health service, including health service in rural areas. The necessity of ensuring the specificity of highly sensitive immunodiagnostic techniques by using the combination of these techniques and competitive radioimmunoassay, as well as increasing their availability by the cooperation of laboratories at the district and regional levels, is emphasized.
In connection with the cessation of the circulation of "wild" poliovirus on the territory of the European region, including Ukraine, the strategy of the vaccinal prophylaxis of poliomyelitis is reviewed. Its main aims are the creation of a high level of the specific protection of the population, the prophylaxis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and a decrease in the intensity of the circulation vaccine polioviruses. These aims may be achieved only by the inclusion of vaccinations with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) into the immunization schedule. IPV "Imovax Polio" produced by the firm "Aventis Pasteur" (France) has been shown to have low reactogenicity and high effectiveness, especially with respect to type 3 poliovirus, under the conditions of Ukraine. On the basis of our studies all children, starting from the age of 3 months, are recommended to be vaccinated first with two injections of IPV, followed by further immunization with oral vaccine.
A questionnaire was spread among Kiev physicians with the purpose of evaluating their level of information concerning the AIDS problem. An interrelation of level of knowledge and character of relation to the HIV infection was found. It was established that the idea of air-drop ways of HIV transmission is widely spread among the medical personnel with a tendency to stigmatization of the infected, underestimation of the AIDS problem significance. The authors emphasize the requirement of state-backed program on system of professional training of medical personnel in the AIDS problem.
Changes in the population structure of influenza B virus in the Ukraine since 1980 has been studied. New strains of the virus have been identified and the epidemic potentials of different strains have been compared. The data on the drift mechanism of the origin of the intermediate strains of influenza B virus have been observed. A suggestion on the etiological prognostication of the epidemic process has been made.
An animal model for the study of the influence of immunomodulators on the development and preservation of postvaccinal antidiphtheria immunity was experimentally selected and the corresponding study was carried out. In this work the following immunomodulators were used: dibasol, prodigiosan, splenin, thymalin, reaferon, tactivin, methyluracyl. The study revealed that by day 120 of observation all immunomodulators stimulated the production of antibodies in higher titers than adsorbed DPT vaccine, introduced without immunomodulators. The most effective action was exhibited by splenin and prodigiosan (injected subcutaneously), dibasol and methyluracyl (administered orally). Two latter immunomodulators, if introduced prior to immunization, are the most promising preparations to be used in practical immunoprophylaxis.
We have isolated 29 HIV-1 variants from HIV-1 infected men, 83.3% of these variants having properties Slow/Low and 16.7% belonging to Rapid/High type. The variants of Slow/Low type are of low biological and infective activity. We suppose their properties to correlate with slow HIV-1 infection distributing in Ukraine.