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Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279042
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-11-2017
Author
Janet Prevéy
Mark Vellend
Nadja Rüger
Robert D Hollister
Anne D Bjorkman
Isla H Myers-Smith
Sarah C Elmendorf
Karin Clark
Elisabeth J Cooper
Bo Elberling
Anna Maria Fosaa
Gregory H R Henry
Toke T Høye
Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir
Kari Klanderud
Esther Lévesque
Marguerite Mauritz
Ulf Molau
Susan M Natali
Steven F Oberbauer
Zoe A Panchen
Eric Post
Sabine B Rumpf
Niels M Schmidt
Ted Schuur
Phillip R Semenchuk
Tiffany Troxler
Jeffrey M Welker
Christian Rixen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Date
Jan-11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher-latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering were more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient, and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
28079308 View in PubMed
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Patterns and biases in an Arctic herbarium specimen collection: Implications for phenological research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299063
Source
Appl Plant Sci. 2019 Mar; 7(3):e01229
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Zoe A Panchen
Jennifer Doubt
Heather M Kharouba
Mark O Johnston
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography University of British Columbia Vancouver British Columbia Canada.
Source
Appl Plant Sci. 2019 Mar; 7(3):e01229
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Herbarium specimens are increasingly used in phenological studies. However, natural history collections can have biases that influence the analysis of phenological events. Arctic environments, where remoteness and cold climate govern collection logistics, may give rise to unique or pronounced biases.
We assessed the presence of biases in time, space, phenological events, collectors, taxonomy, and plant traits across Nunavut using herbarium specimens accessioned at the National Herbarium of Canada (CAN).
We found periods of high and low collection that corresponded to societal and institutional events; greater collection density close to common points of air and sea access; and preferences to collect plants at the flowering phase and in peak flower, and to collect particular taxa, flower colours, growth forms, and plant heights. One-quarter of collectors contributed 90% of the collection.
Collections influenced by temporal and spatial biases have the potential to misrepresent phenology across space and time, whereas those shaped by the interests of collectors or the tendency to favour particular phenological stages, taxa, and plant traits could give rise to imbalanced phenological comparisons. Underlying collection patterns may vary among regions and institutions. To guide phenological analyses, we recommend routine assessment of any herbarium data set prior to its use.
PubMed ID
30937221 View in PubMed
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Prediction of Arctic plant phenological sensitivity to climate change from historical records.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280767
Source
Ecol Evol. 2017 Mar;7(5):1325-1338
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Zoe A Panchen
Root Gorelick
Source
Ecol Evol. 2017 Mar;7(5):1325-1338
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The pace of climate change in the Arctic is dramatic, with temperatures rising at a rate double the global average. The timing of flowering and fruiting (phenology) is often temperature dependent and tends to advance as the climate warms. Herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations can provide historical phenology records and have been used, on a localised scale, to predict species' phenological sensitivity to climate change. Conducting similar localised studies in the Canadian Arctic, however, poses a challenge where the collection of herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations have been temporally and spatially sporadic. We used flowering and seed dispersal times of 23 Arctic species from herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations collected from across the 2.1?million km(2) area of Nunavut, Canada, to determine (1) which monthly temperatures influence flowering and seed dispersal times; (2) species' phenological sensitivity to temperature; and (3) whether flowering or seed dispersal times have advanced over the past 120?years. We tested this at different spatial scales and compared the sensitivity in different regions of Nunavut. Broadly speaking, this research serves as a proof of concept to assess whether phenology-climate change studies using historic data can be conducted at large spatial scales. Flowering times and seed dispersal time were most strongly correlated with June and July temperatures, respectively. Seed dispersal times have advanced at double the rate of flowering times over the past 120?years, reflecting greater late-summer temperature rises in Nunavut. There is great diversity in the flowering time sensitivity to temperature of Arctic plant species, suggesting climate change implications for Arctic ecological communities, including altered community composition, competition, and pollinator interactions. Intraspecific temperature sensitivity and warming trends varied markedly across Nunavut and could result in greater changes in some parts of Nunavut than in others.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28261446 View in PubMed
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