Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents.
A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression.
Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2).
The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing, as well as mental health among users.
There is a lack of studies examining the association between waterpipe smoking and mental well-being among adolescents. This study sought to determine whether waterpipe smoking is associated with mental well-being and other risk and health behaviours in adolescents.
A questionnaire was distributed to 1006 adolescents in grades 9-12 (with a response rate of >95%), containing questions on measures of stress, mental energy and sleep. In addition, the questionnaire assessed risk and health behaviours, including use of a waterpipe, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, snus, alcohol, narcotics, gambling and exercise. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with waterpipe use.
Thirty-seven per cent ( n=371) of the participants had used a waterpipe at some point. Waterpipe use was associated with lower mental energy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.99), higher stress (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.20) and use of cigarettes (OR = 3.82, 95% CI 2.33-6.03), e-cigarettes (OR = 3.26, 95% CI 2.12-4.99), snus (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 2.12-4.99), alcohol (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.07-3.44) and narcotics (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.75-7.58). Waterpipe use was not significantly associated with gambling, exercise or sleep quality.
Waterpipe use in adolescents is associated with worse mental well-being, as well as use of other nicotine products, alcohol and narcotics. Prospective studies are needed to delineate causal and temporal relationships further between waterpipe use and mental well-being and its relationship to other risky behaviours in order to design effective prevention programs.