Cephalosporin and aminoglycoside utilization in Hong Kong during 1984, 1985 and 1986, were evaluated from wholesale data and compared with corresponding Swedish statistics and with UK data from a survey of non-hospital prescriptions. Details regarding each drug and category were collated, adjusted for population and if appropriate expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 inhabitants/day. With respect to cephalosporins: (a) overall sales (especially those of the newer and more expensive parenteral drugs) were increasing; (b) parenteral sales were much larger in Hong Kong hospitals than in the community (up to about 106 versus 16 kg/million inhabitants/year respectively), but in Sweden they were comparable (up to about 38 and 41 kg/million inhabitants/year respectively); (c) non-hospital oral utilization appeared greater in the UK than in Sweden and Hong Kong (up to about 0.7, 0.4 and 0.4 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day respectively); (d) oral sales to hospitals were greater in Hong Kong than Sweden (up to 0.3 compared to 0.1 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day respectively) and (e) oral paediatric formulations (liquids) were most popular in Hong Kong, a higher proportion of children in Hong Kong being one possible reason. Non-hospital sales of gentamicin and kanamycin in Hong Kong were much greater than in Sweden (up to about 0.20 and 0.06 vs. 0.01 and 0.00 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day respectively), whereas UK utilization appeared almost non-existent. Topical neomycin sales in Hong Kong were much more popular than in Sweden (up to about 60 vs. 9 g/million inhabitants/day). These regional differences in antibiotic utilization may be related to respective health care systems (and thus the affordability and availability of drugs) and prescribing preferences (cultural and/or promoted by drug companies), quite apart from possible differences in drug efficacy, drug tolerance and the prevalence and severity of various infections.
Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) occurs when an in-patient chooses to leave the hospital before discharge is recommended by the treating clinicians. The long-term outcomes of patients who DAMA are not well documented.
The objective of this long-term and hospital-wide study is to examine characteristics of patients who DAMA, their rates of readmission and mortality after self-discharge.
Administrative data of admissions to Flinders Medical Centre between July 2002 and June 2011 were used to compare readmissions and mortality among patients who DAMA with those who did not. The outcomes were adjusted for age, gender, emergency admission status, comorbidity, mental health diagnoses, and alcohol and substance abuse.
In the study period, 1562 episodes (1.3%) of 121,986 admissions to Flinders Medical Centre were DAMA. Compared with those who did not leave against medical advice, these patients were younger, more often male, more likely of indigenous ethnicity and had less physical comorbidity, but greater mental health comorbidity. Half of the DAMA group stayed less than 3 days. In multivariate analysis, the relative risk for 7-day, 28-day and 1-year readmission in the DAMA group was 2.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-2.81; P
School personnel in contact with students with life-threatening allergies often lack necessary supports, creating a potentially dangerous situation. Sabrina's Law, the first legislation in the world designed to protect such children, requires all Ontario public schools to have a plan to protect children at risk. Although it has captured international attention, the differences a legislative approach makes have not been identified. Our study compared the approaches to anaphylaxis prevention and management in schools with and without legislation.
Legislated (Ontario) and nonlegislated (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec) environments were compared. School board anaphylaxis policies were assessed for consistency with Canadian anaphylaxis guidelines. Parents of at-risk children and school personnel were surveyed to determine their perspectives on school practices. School personnel's EpiPen5 technique was assessed.
Consistency of school board policies with anaphylaxis guidelines was significantly better in a legislated environment (P=0.009). Parents in a legislated environment reported more comprehensive anaphylaxis emergency forms (P80%), suboptimal technique was commonly observed. However, school personnel in the legislated environment had better technique (P
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of spectrophotometry and a computerized color formulation system to predict pigment formulas for color mixing silicone elastomer to match the skin color of African-Canadian people.
In a prospective study, reflectance spectrophotometery was used to measure the skin color of 19 African-Canadian subjects. The spectral data for each subject was used in a computerized color formulation system to predict colorants required to mix silicone elastomer to match each subject's skin color. Delta-E values were recorded for each silicone sample in comparison to the subject's skin measurement. An analysis of variance was used to determine significance among variables, and a Tukey HSD post hoc test was used to assess paired comparisons.
Delta-E decreased with iterative mixes of colored silicone for each subject, and pigment loading increased with iterative mixes. Delta-E values for the third iterative mix (fourth and final sample) ranged between 1.49 and 8.82.
Spectrophotometry and computerized color formulation provide a foundation in the color matching procedure for facial prostheses that offers objectivity to an otherwise subjective task. Through further study of spectrophotometry and computerized color formulation, and with the development of pigment databases appropriate for the African-Canadian population, it may be possible to establish a precise and repeatable color matching system that predicts required colorants and controls metamerism.
The Schools of Nursing of Tianjin Medical College and the University of Ottawa have been partners in a Canadian-Chinese linkage project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Chinese Government since 1989, at teh instigation of Canadian faculty member Nancy Johnson who saw the need for academic support for the Chinese nursing community.
The research productivity was estimated by publications from anesthesiology departments at Canadian universities over a five-year period, and the articles published were classified into several study designs.
In this observational study, the MEDLINE database was searched for publications listed by anesthesiology departments at Canadian universities as the primary corresponding source from 2000-2004. Abstracts were reviewed and each publication categorized into its respective methodological design. Impact factors of the journals in which the articles appeared were taken into consideration. "Total impact score" was defined as the total number of articles from a particular journal in a particular year multiplied by the impact factor value. Changes in overall publication numbers over the five-year period were compared and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients.
Total Canadian anesthesia publications remained constant from 2000-2004. In this five-year time frame, the University of Toronto had the highest number of publications (271) followed by the University of Montreal (86), and McGill University (84). These universities conducted primarily randomized controlled trials (RCTs) whereas smaller Canadian universities mainly published case reports, reviews, and cohort studies. The number of RCTs conducted seems to be decreasing whereas the number of case reports and reviews being published are remaining constant over the five-year period.
Although overall numbers in anesthesia publications do not suggest a significant decline, the number of RCTs decreased during the years 2000-2004. The quality of anesthesia research appears to be comparable to those in other medical specialties, with larger institutions conducting RCTs and smaller institutions publishing more case reports.
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 2006 Aug;53(8):845-6; author reply 847-816873353
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 2006 Aug;53(8):846-7; author reply 847-816873355
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 2006 Mar;53(3):217-2116527783
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 2006 Aug;53(8):845; author reply 847-816873354
Experimental data suggest that sex steroids have a role in the development of breast and prostate cancers. The biological activity of sex steroid hormones in target tissues is regulated by several enzymes, including 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSD). Changes in the expression patterns of these enzymes may significantly modulate the intracellular steroid content and play a pathophysiological role in malignant transformation. To further clarify the role of 17HSDs in breast cancer, we analyzed the mRNA expressions of the 17HSD type 1, 2, and 5 enzymes in 794 breast carcinoma specimens. Both 17HSD type 1 and 2 mRNAs were detected in normal breast tissue from premenopausal women but not in specimens from postmenopausal women. Of the breast cancer specimens, 16% showed signals for 17HSD type 1 mRNA, 25% for type 2, and 65% for type 5. No association between the 17HSD type 1, 2, and 5 expressions was detected. The patients with tumors expressing 17HSD type 1 mRNA or protein had significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival than the other patients. The expression of 17HSD type 5 was significantly higher in breast tumor specimens than in normal tissue. The group with 17HSD type 5 overexpression had a worse prognosis than the other patients. Cox multivariate analyses showed that 17HSD type 1 mRNA, tumor size, and ERalpha had independent prognostic significance. Using an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, we developed a cell model to study the progression of prostate cancer. In this model, androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells are transformed in culture conditions into more aggressive, androgen-independent cells. The model was used to study androgen and estrogen metabolism during the transformation process. Our results indicate that substantial changes in androgen and estrogen metabolism occur in the cells during the process. A remarkable decrease in oxidative 17HSD activity was seen, whereas reductive activity seemed to increase. Since local steroid metabolism controls the bioavailability of active steroid hormones of target tissues, the variations in steroid-metabolizing enzymes during cancer progression may be crucial in the regulation of the growth and function of organs.