To test whether the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), including postexercise vital sign measurements and distance walked, predicts summit success on Denali, AK.
This was a prospective observational study of healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 years who had been at 4267 m for less than 24 hours on Denali. Physiologic measurements were made after the 6MWT. Subjects then attempted to summit at their own pace and, at the time of descent, completed a Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Questionnaire and reported maximum elevation reached.
One hundred twenty-one participants enrolled in the study. Data were collected on 111 subjects (92% response rate), of whom 60% summited. On univariate analysis, there was no association between any postexercise vital sign and summit success. Specifically, there was no significant difference in the mean postexercise peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) between summiters (75%) and nonsummiters (74%; 95% CI, -3 to 1; P = .37). The distance a subject walked in 6 minutes (6MWTD) was longer in summiters (617 m) compared with nonsummiters (560 m; 95% CI, 7.6 to 106; P = .02). However, this significance was not maintained on a multivariate analysis performed to control for age, sex, and guide status (P = .08), leading to the conclusion that 6MWTD was not a robust predictor of summit success.
This study did not show a correlation between postexercise oxygen saturation or 6MWTD and summit success on Denali.
This study evaluated the clinical factors associated with Propionibacterium acnes shoulder infection and the standard culture procedures for isolating P. acnes from shoulder specimens by a 7-year retrospective analysis. P. acnes was incriminated as the second most common pathogen in 17 of 80 patients with positive shoulder cultures. All of the 17 patients had prior shoulder implant. The cumulative rates for isolating P. acnes were 1.9%, 1.9%, 41.9%, 96.4%, and 100% at day 1 to day 5 of incubation, respectively. The standard practice of anaerobic culture was able to detect P. acnes from shoulder specimens in patients with a clinical suspicion of infection. The sensitivity and specificity of prolonged incubation remain to be determined.
The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at
The aim of the present study was to describe the Norwegian adult population according to: 1. number of teeth present, 2. demand and utilization of dental services, 3. travel time from home to the dentist, 4. dental health behaviour, 5. fear for dental treatment. The analyses were performed on a set of national data collected in 1989, which was representative of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population 20 years and above. The sample size was 1260 individuals. About 75% of the people had 20 teeth or more present. Nine percent were edentulous. Seventy-seven percent who had demanded dental services during the last year. The average expenditure for dental treatment for those who had demanded the services during the last year was NOK 826. Fifty-three percent travelled 15 minutes or less from home to the dentist. Eighteen percent travelled 30 minutes or more. Almost everybody with their own teeth present brushed their teeth regularly once a day. Thirty-three percent of all dentate people used woodsticks regularly once a day, while 20% used toothfloss regularly. Seventy-five percent had no to mild fear of the dentist, while 7% had a strong fear. Fear of the dentist was higher among women than among men. Fear of the dentist decreased by increasing age. Few people, less than 4%, had cancelled a dental appointment because of dental anxiety. There has been an improvement in dental health and dental health behaviour in Norway during the 1970's and 1980's. These improvements are discussed with special attention paid to the findings from the present study.
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in cord blood of newborns in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We examined maternal plasma cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) measured during pregnancy in relation to DNA methylation at 473,844 CpG sites (CpGs) in 1,062 newborn cord blood samples from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K).
We found differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide statistical significance (p-value
Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas, State Oceanic Administration, National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, No. 42, Linghe Street, Dalian, 116023, China; Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, No. 200, Wenxian Road, Fuzhou, 350108, China.
Worldwide the seafloor has been recognized as a major sink for microplastics. However, currently nothing is known about the sediment microplastic pollution in the North Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Here, we present the first record of microplastic contamination in the surface sediment from the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. The microplastics were extracted by the density separation method from collected samples. Each particle was identified using the microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (µFTIR). The abundances of microplastics in sediments from all sites ranged from not detected (ND) to 68.78 items/kg dry weight (DW) of sediment. The highest level of microplastic contamination in the sediment was detected from the Chukchi Sea. A negative correlation between microplastic abundance and water depth was observed. Polypropylene (PP) accounted for the largest proportion (51.5%) of the identified microplastic particles, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (35.2%) and rayon (13.3%). Fibers constituted the most common shape of plastic particles. The range of polymer types, physical shapes and spatial distribution characteristics of the microplastics suggest that water masses from the Pacific and local coastal inputs are possible sources for the microplastics found in the study area. In overall, our results highlight the global distribution of these anthropogenic pollutants and the importance of management action to reduce marine debris worldwide.
The impact of APOE e4 on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its progression to dementia remain controversial. We aimed to examine the association of APOE e4 with MCI, and to verify the hypothesis that e4 accelerates progression from MCI to dementia. In the Kungsholmen project, 756 cognitively healthy participants and 212 people with MCI aged =75 years were identified at baseline. Amnestic MCI (aMCI) and other cognitive impairment no dementia (oCIND) as two subtypes of MCI were assessed based on standard definitions. The two cohorts were followed for 9 years to detect incident cases of MCI and dementia following international criteria. APOE genotypes were assessed at baseline. Data were analyzed using Cox models. During the follow-up, in the cognitively healthy cohort, 165 people developed MCI (40 aMCI and 125 oCIND) and 176 developed dementia; in the MCI cohort, 118 persons progressed to dementia. Compared with APOE e3e3, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) of e2e4/e3e4 were 2.24 (1.10-4.57) for aMCI and 1.78 (1.15-2.75) for oCIND, while the e4e4 was related to dementia with a HR of 4.35 (1.97-9.63) in the cognitively healthy cohort. In the MCI cohort, the e4e4 genotype led to a multi-adjusted HR of 2.89 (1.12-7.48) for dementia and accelerated the progression to dementia by 3.36 years. The APOE e4 heterozygotes are associated with an increased risk of aMCI and oCIND. The e4 homozygote substantially accelerates progression from MCI to dementia, and anticipate dementia occurrence by more than 3 years in people with MCI.
Global warming and human land management have greatly influenced vegetation growth through both changes in spring phenology and photosynthetic primary production. This will presumably impact the velocity of vegetation greenup (Vgreenup, the daily rate of changes in vegetation productivity during greenup period), yet little is currently known about the spatio-temporal patterns of Vgreenup of global vegetation. Here, we define Vgreenup as the ratio of the amplitude of greenup (Agreenup) to the duration of greenup (Dgreenup) and derive global Vgreenup from 34-year satellite leaf area index (LAI) observations to study spatio-temporal dynamics of Vgreenup at the global, hemispheric and ecosystem scales. We find that 19.9% of the pixels analyzed (n = 1175453) experienced significant trends toward higher greenup rates by an average of 0.018 m2 m-2 day-1 for 1982-2015 as compared to 8.6% of pixels with significant negative trends (P
Global warming and human land management have greatly influenced vegetation growth through both changes in spring phenology and photosynthetic primary production. This will presumably impact the velocity of vegetation greenup (Vgreenup, the daily rate of changes in vegetation productivity during greenup period), yet little is currently known about the spatio-temporal patterns of Vgreenup of global vegetation. Here, we define Vgreenup as the ratio of the amplitude of greenup (Agreenup) to the duration of greenup (Dgreenup) and derive global Vgreenup from 34-year satellite leaf area index (LAI) observations to study spatio-temporal dynamics of Vgreenup at the global, hemispheric, and ecosystem scales. We find that 19.9% of the pixels analyzed (n = 1,175,453) experienced significant trends toward higher greenup rates by an average of 0.018 m2 m-2 day-1 for 1982-2015 as compared to 8.6% of pixels with significant negative trends (p
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, PO Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland; Finnish Gymnastics Federation, Hämeentie 105 A, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Obes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Nov - Dec; 13(6):522-528
To determine the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) compared to the measured values, and to assess the similarity between self-reported and measured values within dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs.
The data on self-reported and measured height, weight and WC values as well as measured hip circumference (HC) were collected from 444 twin individuals (53-67 years old, 60% women). Accuracies between self-reported and measured values were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients, Cohen's kappa coefficients and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Intra-class correlation was used in within-pair analyses.
The correlations between self-reported and measured values were high for all variables (r=0.86-0.98), although the agreement assessed by Bland-Altman 95% limits had relatively wide variation. The degree of overestimating height was similar in both sexes, whereas women tended to underestimate and men overestimate their weight. Cohen's kappa coefficients between self-reported and measured BMI categories were high: 0.71 in men and 0.70 in women. Further, the mean self-reported WC was less than the mean measured WC (difference in men 2.5cm and women 2.6cm). The within-pair correlations indicated a tendency of MZ co-twins to report anthropometric measures more similarly than DZ co-twins.
Self-reported anthropometric measures are reasonably accurate indicators for obesity in large cohort studies. However, the possibility of more similar reporting among MZ pairs should be taken into account in twin studies exploring the heritability of different phenotypes.