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A 6-year longitudinal study of caries in teenagers and the effect of "dropouts" on the findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139575
Source
Community Dent Health. 2010 Sep;27(3):172-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
I B Arnadóttir
W P Holbrook
H. Agústsdóttir
S R Saemundsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland Reykjavík, Iceland. iarnad@hi.is
Source
Community Dent Health. 2010 Sep;27(3):172-7
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - radiography
Fisheries
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Patient Dropouts - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Research Subjects - psychology
Risk-Taking
Rural Population
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate attrition of subjects in a longitudinal study of caries.
A radiographic study of caries and caries-associated factors was carried out in subjects, initially aged 14 years, and followed-up for six years. Attrition of subjects occurred at the last stage of the study.
A nationwide survey of subjects living in fishing, rural farming, and urban communities in Iceland.
A sub-sample of the nationwide random sample comprising 150 subjects was investigated using bitewing radiographs and a structured questionnaire to determine caries-risk factors. Subjects were re-examined at 16 years and 20 years using the same methods.
Mean caries increment from 14-16 years was 3.0 lesions (1.5 lesions/subject/year) but reduced to 2.6 lesions (0.7 lesions/subject/ year) by 20y. The proportion of subjects found to be caries-free at 14 years, 16 years and 20 years, was 29%, 17% and 10%, respectively. "Dropouts" from this study occurred mostly after 16 years. Analysis of subjects dropping out showed that they were least likely to be from the rural farming community but most likely from the fishing community. Those dropping out attended their dentist less frequently, had a higher consumption of carbonated drinks and a higher prevalence and incidence of caries by 16 years.
Subjects with high-risk behaviours, or residents in a fishing community were more likely to drop out of the study. Recognised advantages of conducting longitudinal studies of caries may, therefore, be lost.
PubMed ID
21046910 View in PubMed
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Cariogenic bacteria in a longitudinal study of approximal caries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35487
Source
Caries Res. 1995;29(1):42-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
H. Sigurjóns
M O Magnúsdóttir
W P Holbrook
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
Source
Caries Res. 1995;29(1):42-5
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Colony Count, Microbial
Dental Caries - microbiology
Dental Caries Activity Tests
Dental Plaque - microbiology
Forecasting
Humans
Lactobacillus - isolation & purification
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Predictive value of tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Streptococcus mutans - isolation & purification
Streptococcus sobrinus - isolation & purification
Abstract
Two hundred and seventeen approximal spaces, initially caries free, in 58 patients were studied clinically and radiographically, at intervals of 6 months, for 3 years. Samples of approximal dental plaque were removed for culture of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and lactobacilli. During the study approximal caries developed in 16 subjects (27.6%) at 30 sites (13.8%), involving 42 teeth. 56 of 58 (96.7%) subjects harboured S. mutans at some time during the study, 62.1% lactobacilli, and 29.3% had S. sobrinus. The counts of S. mutans were significantly higher in those subjects that also carried S. sobrinus than in the remaining subjects. A persisting high count of S. mutans > 10(5) colony-forming units per millilitre (CFU/ml) or a count that rose by > or = 1 x log10 CFU/ml during the study was seen in 25 of 30 sites that subsequently became carious (p 10(3) CFU/ml or rising by > or = 1 x log10 CFU/ml were seen in 17 of 30 sites that became carious (p
PubMed ID
7867049 View in PubMed
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Dental caries and cariogenic factors in pre-school urban Icelandic children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36481
Source
Caries Res. 1993;27(5):431-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
W P Holbrook
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
Source
Caries Res. 1993;27(5):431-7
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Buffers
Child
Child, Preschool
Colony Count, Microbial
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - etiology
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Lactobacillus - isolation & purification
Longitudinal Studies
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Saliva - physiology - secretion
Secretory Rate
Streptococcus mutans - isolation & purification
Streptococcus sobrinus - isolation & purification
Sucrose - administration & dosage
Tooth, Deciduous
Urban Population
Abstract
Caries prevalence and several caries-related factors were measured in 158 pre-school children in Reykjav?k, initially aged 4 years and followed longitudinally for 2 years. The mean dmfs at 4 years was 3.3 and rose to 5.8 at 6 years although 34% remained caries-free throughout the study. Caries was very unevenly distributed. Children with dmfs > or = 5 at 4 years were significantly more likely to have caries in their permanent dentition at 6 years than those with a lower caries score at 4 years. Almost all children carried Streptococcus mutans but only 58% carried lactobacilli at 4 years. Lactobacilli declined in numbers at 5 and 6 years as the number of open carious lesions decreased but the mean count of S. mutans remained fairly static (> 10(5) cfu/ml). There were strong associations between high counts of S. mutans or lactobacilli and caries. Salivary parameters were not as strongly associated with caries although a low salivary pH and low salivary flow rate were significantly associated with high caries scores. The misuse of sugar as determined by dietary questionnaire was strongly associated with a high caries score and low caries prevalence was found in those children that took fluoride tablets regularly.
PubMed ID
8242682 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal study of caries, cariogenic bacteria and diet in children just before and after starting school.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35429
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 1995 Feb;103(1):42-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1995
Author
W P Holbrook
I B Arnadóttir
I. Takazoe
D. Birkhed
G. Frostell
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 1995 Feb;103(1):42-5
Date
Feb-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Diet Surveys
Diet, Cariogenic
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Lactobacillus - isolation & purification
Longitudinal Studies
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Saliva - microbiology
School Health Services
Streptococcus mutans - isolation & purification
Sucrose - adverse effects
Abstract
Fifty 5-yr-old preschool children living in Akranes, a small community in West Iceland known to have a high caries prevalence, were investigated with respect to caries, salivary counts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, and consumption of cariogenic foods. Fifteen months later, after being in school for half a year, 43 of the 50 children were reexamined and investigated as before. Mean dmfs scores rose from 7.1 to 9.0, but the scores including initial caries rose from 9.7 to 15.3. Mutans streptococci were carried by 84% of children on both occasions with a mean count 2.1 and 3.6 x 10(5) cfu/ml. Lactobacillus carriage increased from 29 to 38% and the mean count from 5.1 to 13 x 10(3) cfu/ml at 6 yr. The frequency of consumption of sugar-containing foods increased from 4.2 to 5.2 intakes per day and between-meal snacks rose from 3.0 to 3.7 per day. Children classified as "misusing" sugar were 59% at 5 yr and 83% at 6 yr. The mean caries score at 6 yr for children "misusing" sugar was 10.7 but only 2.0 for those not misusing sugar. Thus the deterioration in dental health appears, in these children, to be associated with the increased consumption of sweets and other cariogenic between-meal snacks after starting school.
PubMed ID
7600249 View in PubMed
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Prediction of dental caries in pre-school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36482
Source
Caries Res. 1993;27(5):424-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
W P Holbrook
J J de Soet
J. de Graaff
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
Source
Caries Res. 1993;27(5):424-30
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Colony Count, Microbial
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - microbiology
Dental Caries Activity Tests
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Lactobacillus - isolation & purification
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Saliva - physiology
Streptococcus mutans - isolation & purification
Sucrose - administration & dosage
Tooth, Deciduous
Abstract
Data obtained in a longitudinal study of caries incidence and caries-related factors were analysed with a view to producing a model for the prediction of caries. In direct correlations, caries incidence was significantly associated with bacterial, dietary and salivary variables; but when the data were examined by stepwise regression the strongest variables were the baseline caries score and misuse of sugar. Counts of Streptococcus mutans entered into the analysis but only as a relatively minor component. Similar significant relationships were seen with the determination of odds ratios. A caries activity test was formulated combining the following caries-associated variables: high counts of S. mutans, or lactobacilli, or the misuse of sugar, or frequent consumption of paediatric medicines. Regular use of fluoride tablets could compensate for paediatric medicine use or misuse of sugar. Such a caries activity test if it had been applied to the children at baseline would have had a positive predictive value of 0.76, a negative predictive value of 0.82, a sensitivity of 0.8 and a specificity of 0.78. Combining tests made the prediction of caries more accurate and in the population for which it was intended gave a reliable means of detecting those children most in need of enhanced caries prevention.
PubMed ID
8242681 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of Streptococcus sobrinus in relation to dental caries in children from Iceland and The Netherlands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37572
Source
ASDC J Dent Child. 1990 Sep-Oct;57(5):337-42
Publication Type
Article
Author
J J de Soet
W P Holbrook
W E van Amerongen
E. Schipper
C H Homburg
J. de Graaff
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Microbiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (ACTA), The Netherlands.
Source
ASDC J Dent Child. 1990 Sep-Oct;57(5):337-42
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Colony Count, Microbial
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Plaque - microbiology
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Immunoblotting
Longitudinal Studies
Netherlands - epidemiology
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Saliva - microbiology - secretion
Secretory Rate
Streptococcus - isolation & purification
Streptococcus mutans - isolation & purification
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of S. sobrinus and S. mutans in specimens of dental plaque and saliva of children five years of age in Reykjavik, Iceland (study 1) and in samples of dental plaque from children nine years of age in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (study 2). The immuneblotting technique (IBT) was a suitable method to evaluate the presence and numbers of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in human dental plaque and saliva. In study 1, eighty-four children were evaluated bacteriologically; of these, 73 percent harbored mutans streptococci in their plaque or saliva. S. sobrinus similarly was present in 29 percent of the children. In study 2 (seventy-two children), the corresponding percentages were 81 percent for S. mutans, and 35 percent for S. sobrinus. The latter was detected in 6 percent of the plaque samples exclusive of S. mutans.
PubMed ID
2212191 View in PubMed
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Trends in dental health among Icelandic urban children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34241
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Jun;105(3):189-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
S. Bjarnason
S Y Finnbogason
B. Köhler
W P Holbrook
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Odontology, Göteborg University, Sweden. odosb@odontologi.gu.se
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Jun;105(3):189-95
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Analysis of Variance
Bacteria - classification
Cariostatic Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Cohort Studies
Colony Count, Microbial
Comparative Study
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dentifrices - therapeutic use
Female
Fluorides - therapeutic use
Follow-Up Studies
Gingival Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Lactobacillus - growth & development
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Oral Hygiene - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Saliva - microbiology
Streptococcus mutans - growth & development
Streptococcus sobrinus - growth & development
Toothbrushing - statistics & numerical data
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Caries experience, oral hygiene and caries-related salivary parameters were recorded in a 20% representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Reykjavik, Iceland in 1991. The majority of the children was re-examined 3 years later in 1994. Trends in prevalence of caries and salivary bacteria were assessed by comparison with an analogous earlier longitudinal study (1984-87). Mean DFS values for 12-year-olds were 12.1 and 4.1, for 15-year-olds 23.3 and 11.3 in the earlier and later study, respectively. Reduction in DFS was 66% and 52% for the respective age groups. The decline was most pronounced in the group with low caries prevalence. Trends in caries experience were paralleled by salivary bacteria. The mean caries scores and frequency distributions of 15-year-olds in 1994 closely resembled those of 12-year-olds a decade earlier, suggesting a delay rather than a true fall in caries prevalence.
PubMed ID
9249184 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.