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Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265772
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Sebastian E Carrasco
Bruno B Chomel
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Melissa A Miller
Kathleen A Burek-Huntington
Rickie W Kasten
Barbara A Byrne
Tracey Goldstein
Jonna A K Mazet
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bartonella - immunology
Bartonella Infections - blood - epidemiology - veterinary
California - epidemiology
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect - veterinary
Otters - blood - microbiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
25514118 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284083
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 Jul 17;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-17-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 Jul 17;
Date
Jul-17-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290856
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Author Affiliation
1 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95965, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Brucella - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Female
Islands - epidemiology
Male
Markov Chains
Monte Carlo Method
Otters - microbiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Rectum - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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Coxiella burnetii exposure in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267029
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-11-2015
Author
Colleen Duncan
Verena A Gill
Kristin Worman
Kathy Burek-Huntington
Kristy L Pabilonia
Sam Johnson
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Christina Weller
Gilbert J Kersh
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Date
May-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii
Endocarditis, Bacterial - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Female
Male
Otters
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Valvular endocarditis has been well described in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni of Alaska and in many cases no cause has been identified. It is also one of the most common conditions observed in people with chronic Coxiella burnetii infection. Given the high levels of C. burnetii exposure in marine mammals distributed throughout the same geographic range as the northern sea otter, and the presence of valvular lesions seen in otters, the objective of this study was to determine the level of C. burnetii exposure in otters and investigate any association between exposure, infection and valvular disease in this species. Archived serum from 75 live captured, apparently healthy otters (25 from each of 3 stocks) and 30 dead otters were tested for C. burnetii antibodies by indirect florescent antibody assay (IFA). Archived bone marrow and heart valves were tested for C. burnetii DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR). Overall, the seroprevalence in live otters was 17%, with significantly more exposed animals in the south central (40%) stock relative to the southwest (8%) and southeast (4%). The seroprevalence of animals sampled post mortem was 27%, although none of the bone marrow or heart valve samples were positive by qPCR. Results of this study failed to demonstrate a significant association between C. burnetii infection and valvular endocarditis in sea otters; however, the differing seroprevalence suggests that exposure opportunities vary geographically.
PubMed ID
25958809 View in PubMed
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The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260208
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Feb 3;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-3-2015
Author
Seth D Newsome
M Tim Tinker
Verena A Gill
Zachary N Hoyt
Angela Doroff
Linda Nichol
James L Bodkin
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Feb 3;
Date
Feb-3-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature.
PubMed ID
25645269 View in PubMed
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