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40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289324
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
06-2016
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Tiina Laatikainen
Veikko Salomaa
Arto Pietilä
Erkki Vartiainen
Pekka Puska
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: pekka.jousilahti@thl.fi.
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
PubMed ID
27242088 View in PubMed
Less detail

40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273308
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 Jun;11(2):207-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Tiina Laatikainen
Veikko Salomaa
Arto Pietilä
Erkki Vartiainen
Pekka Puska
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 Jun;11(2):207-12
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
PubMed ID
27242088 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aberrant circulating levels of purinergic signaling markers are associated with several key aspects of peripheral atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263533
Source
Circ Res. 2015 Mar 27;116(7):1206-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-27-2015
Author
Juho Jalkanen
Gennady G Yegutkin
Maija Hollmén
Kristiina Aalto
Tuomas Kiviniemi
Veikko Salomaa
Sirpa Jalkanen
Harri Hakovirta
Source
Circ Res. 2015 Mar 27;116(7):1206-15
Date
Mar-27-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
5'-Nucleotidase - blood
Adenosine Diphosphate - blood
Adenosine Triphosphate - blood
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alkaline Phosphatase - blood
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Anoxia - blood
Antigens, CD - blood
Apyrase - blood
Artifacts
Atherosclerosis - blood - epidemiology
Biological Markers
Chronic Disease
Comorbidity
Disease Progression
Drug Utilization
Female
Finland - epidemiology
GPI-Linked Proteins - blood
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Hypertension - blood - drug therapy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Cardiovascular
Peripheral Arterial Disease - blood - epidemiology
Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists - therapeutic use
Risk factors
Second Messenger Systems
Smoking - adverse effects - blood - epidemiology
Thrombophilia - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Purinergic signaling plays an important role in inflammation and vascular integrity, but little is known about purinergic mechanisms during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans.
The objective of this study is to study markers of purinergic signaling in a cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease.
Plasma ATP and ADP levels and serum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities were measured in 226 patients with stable peripheral artery disease admitted for nonurgent invasive imaging and treatment. The major findings were that ATP, ADP, and CD73 values were higher in atherosclerotic patients than in controls without clinically evident peripheral artery disease (P
PubMed ID
25645301 View in PubMed
Less detail

Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267415
Source
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Dec;3(12):1402-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Ras Trokovic
Jere Weltner
Ken Nishimura
Manami Ohtaka
Mahito Nakanishi
Veikko Salomaa
Anu Jalanko
Timo Otonkoski
Aija Kyttälä
Source
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Dec;3(12):1402-9
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Finland
Genetic Vectors
Humans
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - cytology - metabolism
Leukocytes, Mononuclear - cytology - metabolism
Male
Abstract
Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25355732 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aging of the population may not lead to an increase in the numbers of acute coronary events: a community surveillance study and modelled forecast of the future.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114624
Source
Heart. 2013 Jul;99(13):954-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Veikko Salomaa
Aki S Havulinna
Heli Koukkunen
Päivi Kärjä-Koskenkari
Arto Pietilä
Juha Mustonen
Matti Ketonen
Aapo Lehtonen
Pirjo Immonen-Räihä
Seppo Lehto
Juhani Airaksinen
Y Antero Kesäniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, THL-National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 30, Helsinki FI-00271, Finland. veikko.salomaa@thl.fi
Source
Heart. 2013 Jul;99(13):954-9
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - epidemiology - mortality
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Aged
Aging
Bayes Theorem
Comorbidity
Computer simulation
Epidemiology - trends
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Markov Chains
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Monte Carlo Method
Registries
Survivors - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Abstract
To examine the incidence, mortality and case fatality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Finland during 1993-2007 and to create forecasts of the absolute numbers of ACS cases in the future, taking into account the aging of the population.
Community surveillance study and modelled forecasts of the future.
Two sets of population-based coronary event register data from Finland (FINAMI and the National Cardiovascular Disease Register (CVDR)). Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) modelling.
24 905 observed ACS events in the FINAMI register and 364 137 in CVDR.
Observed trends of ACS events during 1993-2007, forecasted numbers of ACS cases, and the prevalence of ACS survivors until the year 2050.
In the FINAMI register, the average annual declines in age-standardised incidence of ACS were 1.6% (p
PubMed ID
23598542 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio: reference intervals compared with values in different pathophysiological conditions from the FINRISK 2007 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136029
Source
Clin Chim Acta. 2011 May 12;412(11-12):1146-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-12-2011
Author
Jaana Leiviskä
Jouko Sundvall
Georg Alfthan
Matti Jauhiainen
Veikko Salomaa
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Disease Risk Unit, Helsinki, Finland. jaana.leiviska@thl.fi
Source
Clin Chim Acta. 2011 May 12;412(11-12):1146-50
Date
May-12-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Apolipoprotein A-I - blood
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Blood Chemical Analysis - standards
Disease
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Reference Values
Risk assessment
Abstract
In addition to traditional measurements of serum lipid levels, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apoB/apoA-I ratio may add more value to risk assessment guidelines for cardiovascular disease.
We calculated reference intervals for apoA-I, apoB, and apoB/apoA-I ratio using a reference sample (n=2828) from the FINRISK 2007 study.
The reference intervals for apoA-I were 1.1-2.0 g/l for men and 1.2-2.3 g/l for women. The corresponding reference intervals for apoB were 0.6-1.5 g/l and 0.6-1.3 g/l. The reference intervals for apoB/apoA-I ratio were 0.3-1.0 for men and 0.3-0.8 for women. Compared with the healthy reference group, obese men had the lowest ApoA-I, the highest apoB, and the highest apoB/apoA-I ratio. Men with CVD and cholesterol-lowering medication, or diabetes had lower apoB levels and apoB/apoA-1 ratio than the reference group but the opposite was true for women. The therapeutic goal for low-risk individuals for apoB was 0.9 g/l coinciding with LDL-C concentration of 3.0 mmol/l.
Reference intervals for apoA-I, apoB, and the apoB/apoA-I ratio and their cutoff values may be useful for the risk evaluation and follow-up of treatment among individuals having CVD or other metabolic disorders.
PubMed ID
21419755 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apolipoproteins and HDL cholesterol do not associate with the risk of future dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the National Finnish population study (FINRISK).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287851
Source
Age (Dordr). 2016 Dec;38(5-6):465-473
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Juho Tynkkynen
Jussi A Hernesniemi
Tiina Laatikainen
Aki S Havulinna
Jouko Sundvall
Jaana Leiviskä
Perttu Salo
Veikko Salomaa
Source
Age (Dordr). 2016 Dec;38(5-6):465-473
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - blood - epidemiology
Apolipoprotein A-I - blood
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Biomarkers - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cohort Studies
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Data on associations of apolipoproteins A-I and B (apo A-I, apo B) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are conflicting. Our aim was to examine, whether apo B, apoA-I, their ratio, or HDL-C are significant, independent predictors of incident dementia and AD in the general population free of dementia at baseline. We analyzed the results from two Finnish prospective population-based cohort studies in a total of 13,275 subjects aged 25 to 74?years with mainly Caucasian ethnicity. The follow-up time for both cohorts was 10?years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia (including AD) (n?=?220) and for AD (n?=?154). Cumulative incidence function (CIF) analysis was also performed to adjust the results for competing risks of death. Adjusted for multiple dementia and AD risk factors, log-transformed apo A-I, log HDL-C, log apo B, and log apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with incident dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with AD risk when adjusted for competing risks but no other statistically significant associations were observed in the CIF analyses. Apo A-I, HDL-C, apo B, or apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with future dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with incident AD risk when adjusted for competing risks of death, but the finding is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Our study does not support the use of these risk markers to predict incident dementia or AD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27663235 View in PubMed
Less detail

Appetitive traits as behavioural pathways in genetic susceptibility to obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275595
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:14726
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Hanna Konttinen
Clare Llewellyn
Jane Wardle
Karri Silventoinen
Anni Joensuu
Satu Männistö
Veikko Salomaa
Pekka Jousilahti
Jaakko Kaprio
Markus Perola
Ari Haukkala
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:14726
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Appetite
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Feeding Behavior
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Multifactorial Inheritance
Obesity - epidemiology - genetics
Population Surveillance
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (ßindirect = 0.030-0.032, P
Notes
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PubMed ID
26423639 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are coronary event rates declining slower in women than in men - evidence from two population-based myocardial infarction registers in Finland?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160370
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Hanna-Riikka Lehto
Seppo Lehto
Aki S Havulinna
Matti Ketonen
Aapo Lehtonen
Y Antero Kesäniemi
Juhani Airaksinen
Veikko Salomaa
Author Affiliation
Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. hrleht@utu.fi
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:35
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - mortality
Population Surveillance
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Design
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Studies have suggested that the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease may not have been as effective in women as in men. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the incidence, attack rate and mortality of myocardial infarction (MI) events have declined less in women than in men.
Two large population-based MI registers, the FINAMI register and the Finnish Cardiovascular Disease Register (CVDR) were used for comparing the event rates among men and women aged > or =35 years in two time periods, 1994-1996 and 2000-2002.
In the FINAMI register a total of 5,252 events were recorded in men and 4,898 in women. Corresponding numbers in the CVDR were 78,709 and 70,464. Both FINAMI and CVDR data suggested smaller declines in incidence and attack rate of MI events in women than in men. In CVDR data the decline in mortality was also smaller in women than in men, while in FINAMI data this difference did not reach statistical significance. In the large CVDR data set, negative binomial regression models revealed smaller declines in incidence (p = 0.006), attack rate (p = 0.008) and mortality (p = 0.04) in women than in men aged or =55 years no difference was observed between women and men.
The incidence and attack rate of MI events have declined less in women aged
Notes
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PubMed ID
17997825 View in PubMed
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The association of sensitive systemic inflammation markers with bronchial asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188052
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Oct;89(4):381-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Veikko Salomaa
Katri Hakala
Vesa Rasi
Elina Vahtera
Timo Palosuo
Author Affiliation
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Finland. pekka.jousilahti@ktl.fi
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Oct;89(4):381-5
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology - physiopathology
Bronchitis, Chronic - complications
C-Reactive Protein - analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fibrinogen - analysis
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Inflammation - blood
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity
Prevalence
Serum Amyloid A Protein - analysis
Smoking
Abstract
Airway inflammation is a characteristic feature of bronchial asthma. Previous studies have shown an increased local inflammatory activity in the airway mucosa of asthma patients.
To analyze the association of asthma with three sensitive markers of systemic inflammation, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid-A (SAA), and plasma fibrinogen.
A cross-sectional, population-based study including 1,513 Finnish men aged 45 to 74 years, who participated in a chronic disease risk factor survey in 1997. Of the participating men, 97 were classified as asthma patients. The odds ratios of asthma were analyzed by quartile of each inflammation marker.
In logistic regression models the age-adjusted odds ratios (second, third, and fourth quartile as compared with the first quartile) of asthma increased gradually with increasing quartile of C-reactive protein (1.28, 1.19, 1.96, P for trend = 0.039), SAA (1.20, 3.00, 3.49, P for trend
Notes
Comment In: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Oct;89(4):346-712392376
PubMed ID
12392382 View in PubMed
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