Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
To assess associations between the intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and the 32-year incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, as well as mortality, in a middle-aged female population.
Gothenburg, Sweden, population about 430 000.
Representative sample of a general population of women (1462 in total) aged 38 to 60 years in 1968-1969, followed up to the ages of 70 to 92 years in 2000-2001.
Associations between alcohol intake and later risk of mortality and morbidity from myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, studied longitudinally.
During the follow-up period, 185 women developed myocardial infarction, 162 developed stroke, 160 women became diabetic, and 345 developed cancer. Women who drank beer had a 30% lower risk (hazards ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.95) of developing myocardial infarcion and almost half the risk (HR 0.51 CI 0.33-0.80). A significant association between increased risk of death from cancer and high spirits consumption was also shown (hazards ratio [HR] 1.47, CI 1.06-2.05).
Women with moderate consumption of beer had a reduced risk of developing myocardial infarction. High spirits consumption was associated with increased risk of cancer mortality.
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Small birth size may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), whereas large birth size may predict increased risk of obesity and some cancers. The net effect of birth size on long-term mortality has only been assessed in individual studies, with conflicting results.
The Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for conducting and reporting meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. We retrieved 22 studies that assessed the association between birthweight and adult mortality from all causes, CVD or cancer. The studies were systematically reviewed and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per kilogram (kg) increase in birthweight were included in generic inverse variance meta-analyses.
For all-cause mortality, 36,834 deaths were included and the results showed a 6% lower risk (adjusted HR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) per kg higher birthweight for men and women combined. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding inverse association was stronger (HR?=?0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.91). For cancer mortality, HR per kg higher birthweight was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07-1.19) for men and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98-1.10) for women (P(interaction)?=?0.03). Residual confounding could not be eliminated, but is unlikely to account for the main findings.
These results show an inverse but moderate association of birthweight with adult mortality from all-causes and a stronger inverse association with cardiovascular mortality. For men, higher birthweight was strongly associated with increased risk of cancer deaths. The findings suggest that birthweight can be a useful indicator of processes that influence long-term health.
AIM: To investigate secular trends in personality traits in adult female populations. METHODS: Two representative, population-based cohorts of women, 38 (n = 318) and 50 (n = 593) years of age participated in a health examination in 1968 and 2004 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS) were used to measure personality traits. Socioeconomic and lifestyle variables (personal income, education, marital status, children at home, physical activity and smoking) were reported. RESULTS: In both age groups, secular comparisons in psychological profile subscales showed an increase in dominance, exhibition, aggression and achievement. Only small divergences were seen concerning affiliation, guilt feelings, nurturance and succorance. EPI showed a corresponding rise in extroversion. Social data showed a statistically significant increase in percentage of unmarried women, personal income levels, and higher educational achievement. While around 70% of women in 1968-69 had elementary school education only, around 90% had high school or university education in 2004-05. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate major transitions in the adult Swedish female population in the direction of a more stereotypically ''male'' personality profile, but not at the expense of traditionally socially important female traits, which remained constant. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that society and the environment influence personality.
The H70 longitudinal study of aging, Göteborg, Sweden is used to empirically test the compression of morbidity theory advanced by. We reconceptualize compression as postponement of morbidity in the sense of decreasing amounts of illness for increasingly long life spans. Operationally, morbidity is defined as the average number of hospital days in the last year of life. The date of death and the date of 1-year prior to death define the risk period. The linear regression model with age at death, age at death squared, year of birth, and sex are statistically significant with the oldest having the fewest hospital days. The findings offer partial support for the compression of morbidity theory.
Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 453, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. email@example.com.
Conflicting results in the literature exist on the role of dairy products in the context of a Nordic Healthy Diet (NHD). Two recent Swedish studies indicate both negative and positive associations with total mortality when comparing key dairy products. There is no consensus about how to include these foods into the NHD.
To study consumption of cheese and milk products (milk, sour milk and unsweetened yoghurt) by 70-year-old Swedes in relation to all-cause mortality.
Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders and stratified by follow-up duration, were used to assess the prediction of all-cause mortality by the above foods. The associations of fat from cheese and milk products with mortality were tested in separate models.
Cheese intake inversely predicted total mortality, particularly at high protein intakes, and this association decreased in strength with increasing follow-up time. Milk products predicted increased mortality with stable HRs over follow-up. The association between milk products and mortality was strongly influenced by the group with the highest consumption. Fat from cheese mirrored the protective association of cheese intake with mortality, whereas fat from milk products predicted excess mortality, but only in an energy-adjusted model.
Based on our results, it may be argued that the role of dairy products in the context of a Nordic healthy diet should be more clearly defined by disaggregating cheese and milk products and not necessarily focusing on dairy fat content. Future epidemiological research should consider dairy products as disaggregated food items due to their great diversity in health properties.
Knowledge about determinants of sexual activity in older adults in the general population is limited. Human senescence has been delayed by a decade, and people are reaching old age in better health.
The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of sexual activity in four birth cohorts of non-demented 70-year-olds examined in 1971-1977 and 1992-2001.
The main outcome measure was sexual activity (defined as intercourse) during the past year.
The study is based on cross-sectional data from four population samples of 70-year-olds from Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 1,407) systematically sampled from the Swedish population register.
In the time periods 1971-1972 and 2000-2001, sexual activity among men increased from 47% to 66%, and in women from 12% to 34%. Sexual activity was related to positive attitude toward sexuality, sexual debut before age 20, having a very happy relationship, having a physically and mentally healthy partner, self-reported good global health, interviewer-rated good mental health, being married/cohabiting, satisfaction with sleep, and drinking alcohol more than three times a week. Having an older partner, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, higher physical health-sum score, and depression were related to less sexual activity. Interaction effects for birth cohort, with stronger positive associations in 1971-1972, were found for positive attitude toward sexuality, strong desire at age 20-30, premarital sexuality, having a younger partner, self-reported good global health, interviewer-rated good global mental health, overweight, and satisfaction with sleep. Having an older partner and depression showed stronger negative associations in the 1970s. Physical health-sum score showed a stronger negative association in 1992-2001.
We found that determinants of sexual activity in older people are numerous and varied, and change over time. It is thus important that health professionals and others take a holistic approach when dealing with sexual problems in older adults. Sexual aging should be part of health care and medical education. Clinicians should be trained to ask older patients about sexual concerns.
Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.
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Systolic murmurs are common in the elderly but there is a striking paucity regarding published reports on their clinical significance and relation with mortality. This study describes prevalence of systolic murmurs in the elderly and cardiovascular diseases in 70-year-olds with or without systolic murmurs, and investigates the relation between systolic murmurs at age 70 and 15-year mortality. This cohort study is based on 973 (449 males and 524 females) 70-year-olds from GÃ¶teborg, Sweden who were examined in 1971/1972 at the Department of Geriatric Medicine, GÃ¶teborg University, and was followed-up to the year 2001. The prevalence of systolic murmur was 31% (females 36.4%, males 23.9%). Among subjects with systolic murmurs the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension was significantly higher in both sexes and congestive heart failure (CHF) in females only. Systolic murmur was a predictor for mortality in females (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.17-1.91) but not in males (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.89-1.49). Diagnosis of a cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor in both sexes for mortality irrespective of having systolic murmurs. In conclusion, there is a significant positive association of cardiovascular diseases with systolic murmurs in the elderly. The increased risk for mortality due to the presence of systolic murmur at age 70 is mediated through cardiovascular diseases.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are often found in older patients but relatively few epidemiological studies have been performed. This study describes: a) cross-sectional differences in ECG abnormalities among three 70-year-old cohorts born over a period of 30 years; b) longitudinal changes in ECG abnormalities from the age of 70 to 85; and c) the relationship between ECG abnormalities at age 70 and subsequent 10- and 15-year mortality in men and women. METHODS: Trends in the prevalence of ECG abnormalities were investigated among 2100 70-year olds (994 men, 1106 women) from three cohorts born in 1901/02 (I), 1911/12 (III) and 1930 (VI). Longitudinal changes and mortality risks were investigated among 973 70-year olds (449 men and 524 women) from cohort I, which was followed from 1971 until 2001. RESULTS: In both sexes, the prevalence of ECG abnormalities was significantly lower in the later-born cohorts. From age 70 to 85, there was an increase in both men and women of large or intermediate Q-waves, left axis deviation, negative T-waves (0-5 mm), complete right bundle branch block (RBBB), and atrial fibrillation or flutter. Compared with those with no ECG abnormalities, the mortality risk was higher among individuals with large and intermediate Q-waves and negative T-waves (> or = 1 mm) in both sexes, and STJ depression > or = 0.5 mm and complete LBBB together with complete RBBB and intraventricular block; QRS > or = 0.12 sec in men only. CONCLUSIONS: ECG abnormalities are frequent in the elderly, they increase with age, and are associated with increased mortality.