to evaluate the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age, and length of reproductive period.
Retrospective data on age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 years (mean 46.32?±?15.42). Finger and metacarpal length ratios as well as visual classification of finger ratio types, were estimated from the x-rays.
We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure, were associated with a later menarche and a shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653 Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. email@example.com.
Previous studies have reported that centenarians escape the major agerelated diseases. No studies on prevalence and severity of osteoarthritis (OA) in longevity population have previously been reported. Because OA is associated with morbidity and mortality, we hypothesized that radiographic hand OA would generally be less prevalent and would develop at a later age in longevity populations vs non-longevity populations. Aim was to evaluate the prevalence and mode of development of radiographic hand OA in three longevity populations (Abkhazians, Azerbaijanis and Georgians) and in one non-longevity population (Russians).
Crosssectional observational study. Longevity index was calculated as a ratio of the number of individuals aged >90 years vs the number of people aged >60, expressed per mil (‰). A population with longevity index >40‰was considered as a longevity population. Radiographic hand OA was evaluated using the left hand radiograms in 14 joints according to Kellgren and Lawrence's (K-L) grading system. Each individual was characterized by the total number of affected (K-L=2) joints (NAJ). Prevalence of hand OA was defined as the presence of at least one affected joint. Statistical analyses included prevalence estimation, linear, logistic and polynomial regressions, and ANOVA.
A significant difference (p0.05). The lowest age-standardized prevalence was found in Abkhazians, followed by Azerbaijanis and Georgians. The highest prevalence was found in Russians. ANOVA showed significant differences (p
This paper is based on the data obtained in the course of population studies conducted in 33 geographical regions of the former USSR territory by the faculty of the Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, between 1961 and 1991. The data resulting from study of 4386 male and 4626 female subjects aged 17 to 99 include head and body morphology, bone mineral density, blood oxygen saturation and blood biochemistry. We aimed at studying the link between the traits of a population and the climatic conditions of the area inhabited by this population. Individual characteristics of the subjects were normalized by age and sex, and factor analysis was used to reduce the number of cross-correlating features. As a result, several integral characteristics (factors) were identified: five body morphology-related factors, two head morphology-related factors, one bone mineral density-related factor, one blood oxygen saturation-related factor and three blood biochemistry-related factors. These factors explained 79.3%, 78.38%, 63.51%, 74.4% and 66.77% of the trait groups' variability, respectively. The correlation analysis between these factors and climatic indicators demonstrated that chest dimensions were the least tolerant to the climatic conditions among the morphological characteristics studied. Hemoglobin-protein ratios, as well as the factor that includes total cholesterol, were the most climate-dependent among the biochemical parameters. As far as our data show, blood serum oxygen saturation--the key factor determining the performance of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems--is also climate-dependent.
Osseographic score (OSS) is a skeletal biomarker of biological aging, based on assessment of the hand's radiographic features. The aims of the present cross-sectional and follow-up study were: 1) to evaluate age-related changes of OSS in a large Chuvashian cohort, and 2) to evaluate sex differences in age-related changes of OSS. This study reports on intersexual differences in the pattern of skeletal aging. The most prominent difference was in the rate of skeletal change, measured as average OSS difference per year. However, no differences were found in the age at which the first skeletal change occurred. The mean values of OSS were higher in males than in females in decades 3-5 of life, but afterwards they reversed. In a follow-up study, we found that sex differences regarding the rate of OSS change began in the fifth decade, but became statistically significant only in the sixth and seventh decades. Thereafter, the rate of OSS change again became virtually equal between sexes.