The paper gives data on the helminthiasis--gastrodiscoidosis, a zoonotic disease caused by the trematode Gastrodiscoides hominis (Lewis et McConnall, 1876) parasitizing in the animal and human intestine in the endemic foci of both Russia and foreign countries. It also presents information on the morphology of the helminth, the biological cycle of development of the parasite and its habitat and spread, as well as its induced abnormalities and on the method of diagnosing of the disease.
The fasciolosis epizootic situation in Russia is assessed on the zonal basis of the spread of this helminthism. The authors state the causes of varying degrees of this infection in animals and its spread zones in regional and latitude aspects: a problem-free zone, a low infection spread zone, a zone of periodic outbreaks, and that of persistent fasciolosis.
Toxocariasis is today the most widespread zoonotic, helminthic infection in Russia and other countries of the world. A large population of Toxocara has recently inhabited the urban populations of dogs and cats. Therefore toxocariasis canis and toxocariasis cati have shifted from rural areas to cities and megalopolises where Toxocara canis infestation amounts to as much as 100%, without excluding that in the rural populations of dogs. Due to the fact that the number of dogs and cats has considerably increased (20% of adult dogs and 80% of puppies are infected with Toxocara) in our megalopolises, cities, and urban communities as in foreign countries, this substantially increases the risk of toxacariasis. From the above reasoning, environmental contamination with Toxacara eggs creates an important reservoir of infestation for humans and animals (the contamination rates in different regions of Russia ranges from 1-3 to 50-60%, with the infestation rates of 1 - 10 eggs per 100 g of soil). Human toxocariasis is polymorphic, from its subclinical course to significant organ pathology, and detectable as a manifestation of eosinophilia, fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, lung and central nervous system lesions, myocarditis, and skin rash. The diagnosis of toxocariasis is established by its clinical presentation and serological findings. It is important in the history that children have spent much time with dogs or cats.