[Brief history of creation and activities of Research Institute of Hygiene and Health Protection of Children and Adolescents State Institution Research Centre of Children's Health Protection, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences].
The Institute was founded to study effects of environmental factors on the health status and day-to-day activities of children and adolescents in organized groups and to use the data obtained for the elaboration of measures for the protection and promotion of their health. The Institute is up to now the sole research institution of this kind in the Russian Federation entitled to coordinate problem-solving efforts on a national scale. Since 2000, it has been functioning as the National Centre for support of the European network of health promoting schools. The Institute developed a concept of research designed to resolve topical problems facing hygienic science and practical health service; it implicates elaboration of hygienic norms and regulations taking into account age, sex, health status, and the level of mental and physical development of individual children. The main lines of research carried out at the Institute are listed with special reference to the theoretical aspects of such cardinal problems of child hygiene as adaptation, hygienic regulation and standardization, etc. The Institute participated in the development of a new basic curriculum and the state education standard law. The authors present results of multidisciplinary research and developments obtained at the Institute. Specialists of the Institute are involved in the work of international scientific societies.
Comparison of the official and research data on congenital developmental defects frequency (CDDF) in children of Novomoskovsk showed their disagreement. The average CDDF in these children is not more than the Middle European level. Physical development of children is insufficient for their biological age in 25% of cases. Many children suffer from respiratory diseases because of ambient air pollution. The majority of children (88-93%) are referred to 2-4 th health groups according to WHO classification.
This paper summarizes results of research carried out at the Institute of Hygiene and Health Protection of Children and Adolescents during the last 15 years. Specifically, it presents data of longitudinal studies involving 1-5-form schoolchildren residing in Moscow. Dynamic studies of morbidity and physical development in 1-2-grade schoolchildren suggest stressful effect of adaptation to increasing teaching loads. In-depth studies of senior schoolchildren conducted in 1989-2005 revealed long-standing unfavourable trends in their health status including marked deterioration of functional activities and physical development, increased prevalence of chronic diseases, and changes in the overall morbidity structure. Main schooling-dependent risk factors are identified, such as excess academic loads and authoritarian teaching style (responsible for psychoemotional stress), hypokinesia, and malnutrition during school hours. Incidence of certain diseases and functional disorders among adolescents is shown to correlate with the use of alcohol and tobacco.
Regional modified regression scales, complex schemes, and centile tables are highly informative regional norms-based tools employed in the preventive maintenance system. It is shown that estimates of physical development in preschool and school children groups obtained by these methods are closely related to the sanitary and epidemiological welfare in different types of educational institutions, completeness of implementation of preventive and curative measures, factors characterizing early childhood and quality of children's life, socio-psychologic family portraits. The use of regional modified regression scales and complex schemes revealed significant relationship of physical development indices and distribution of children between health groups. It is concluded that methods allowing for comprehensive evaluation of physical development ensure collection of the most valuable information during preventive examination.
Method of assessment of ecological and hygienic risk is based on complex assessment of environmental pollution, study of its influence on the state of health taking in view of the prenosologic changes in the body, and determination of causal connections in the system "population-environment".