A total of 2096 males born in 1916-1935, residing by 1976 in the Petrogradsky District of Leningrad, were twice examined (with an interval of 7.6 yrs) using epidemiological methods. This group was equal to 53.6% of the persons subjected to the first screening. Data on the dead and those who had not come to the second screening, were not analyzed. The total frequency of nonfatal CHD from 1976 up to 1984 raised from 12.6 to 19.2%. As was shown by the assessment of a WHO questionnaire with relation to angina of effort and an analysis of ECG at rest, CHD was undetectable during the second screening in some of the examinees with CHD detected during the first screening. Further on the angina syndrome was not reaffirmed in 52.3% of the patients with previously diagnosed angina, "ischemic" ECG changes were not recorded in 37.1% of the persons with previously detected ischemic codes. Positive ECG time course was noted in 52.1% of the persons with ECG changes typical of CHD detected during the first screening. In spite of a marked tendency to an increase in the total CHD frequency a long-term observation demonstrated a possibility of a favorable time course of chronic CHD and remission in this disease.
The purpose of the survey was to study the time course of the leading CHD risk factors in an open population of men born in 1916-1935 during a prolonged prospective study and to specify CHD interrelationship with new cases of disease and a course of nonfatal CHD. A population of 5000 males from one of the Leningrad districts was examined with an interval of 7.6 yrs. The first screening included 3907 persons, the repeated screening 2096. In the period of observation the number of persons with the absence of leading risk factors decreased (from 11.5 to 9.6%), the frequency of arterial hypertension (AH) increased (from 32.9 to 42.3%), the proportion of examinees with atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia (DLP) remained the same. By the results of the first screening in 50% of the persons with atherogenic DLP the blood lipid composition in 7.6 yrs returned to normal; AH persisted in 80% of the examinees. The presence of the 3 leading risk factors during the first and second screenings was accompanied by the highest frequency of stable CHD and the highest index of new cases of disease.
Examination of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, its promoter, and major exon-intron boundaries from a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) from 74 probands of St. Petersburg revealed 34 mutations and 8 widely spread polymorphisms at this locus. Only four mutations were considered silent, while the other 30 are likely associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Mutations in the LDL receptor gene, inducing the disease, were identified in 41 (55%) out of 74 families with FH. Mutation R3500Q in apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene was not detected in all probands. Therefore in the families lacking mutations hypercholesterolemia was induced by mutations in the introns of the LDL receptor gene or by other genetic factors. Nineteen mutations causing disease progression were described in St. Petersburg for the first time, while 18 of them are specific for Russia. Among Ashkenazi Jews, major mutation G197del was detected in 30% (7 out of 22) of patients with FH. In the Slavic population of St. Petersburg, no major mutations were detected. Only five mutations were identified in two families, while 24 were found in isolated families. These data are indicative of the lack of a strong founder effect for FH in the St. Petersburg population.
The search for two mutations, FH-Helsinki and FH-North Karelia, in LDL receptor gene was carried out in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia from St. Petersburg (80 families) and Petrozavodsk (80 families) using allele-specific PCR and analysis of single-stranded DNA fragment conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis) with subsequent sequencing. The FH-North Karelia mutation was found in one family in St. Petersburg and in one family in Petrozavodsk, while FH-Helsinki mutation was not detected in any of the samples. Hence, the two "Finnish" mutations together responsible for 2/3 familial hypercholesterolemia cases in Finland were extremely rare in the Russian regions neighboring Finland.
The article compares the results of the screening of 3820 males aged 40 to 59 years, representative of the open population, and the mortality rate over a 6-year-follow-up. Mortality was the highest in males in whom angina pectoris was combined with "ischemic" codes on the ECG and the lowest in subjects without CHD symptoms and without codes of left ventricular hypertrophy. The study showed a fairly high prognostic value of the epidemiologic method of CHD diagnosis.
[Polymorphic markers Ala455Val of the THBD gene and Arg353Gln of the F7 gene and association with unfavorable outcomes of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with a history of acute ischemic heart disease].
The polymorphic markers Ala455Val of the THBD gene and Arg353Gln of the F7 gene were tested for association with the frequency of unfavorable outcomes in patients with a history of acute ischemic heart disease. The study involved 1145 patients hospitalized in cardiology clinics of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Stavropol, and Rostov-on-Don because of acute ischemic heart disease. The patients were followed up for up to 62.5 months. None of the markers displayed a significant association with the time to an endpoint. The patients were then grouped by sex. In females, the frequency of unfavorable outcomes (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal or nonfatal stroke) was higher in carriers of allele Val of the Ala344Val polymorphic marker of the THBD gene and carriers of genotype Arg/Arg of the Arg353Gln polymorphic marker of the F7 gene, but the difference was not statistically significant. Such an increase in frequency was not observed in males. To study the combined effect of the polymorphic markers of the THBD and F7 genes, the course of ischemic heart disease was compared for two female subgroups. One included carriers of allele Val of the Ala344Val polymorphic marker of the THBD gene and genotype Arg/Arg of the Arg353Gln polymorphic marker of the F7 gene; the other subgroup included carriers ofgenotype Ala/Ala of the Ala455Val polymorphic marker of the THBD gene and allele Gln of the Arg353Gln polymorphic marker of the F7 gene. The frequency of unfavorable outcomes in the first subgroup was higher than in the second one. The time to an endpoin was 40.5 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.5-47.6) in the first subgroup and 51.6 months (95% CI 45.0-58.1) in the second subgroup (chi2 = 4.15, P = 0.042). The results made it possible to assume that the F7 and THBD genes play an important role in genetic predisposition to unfavorable outcomes in patients with a history of acute ischemic heart disease.
We investigated the association of polymorphisms of genes FGB G(-455)A and PROCC(-1654)T with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Russian population. A total of 1145 patients with CAD diagnose on the basis of clinical studies in cardiological hospitals of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Stavropol and Rostov-on-Don. Supervision term was 1.14 +/- +/- 0.33 years (the maximum term 3.2 years). The group studied do not differ significantly with respect to the distributions of G(-455)A alleles and genotypes. However in case of gene PROC C(-1654)T polymorphism we determined that patients with CAD diagnose and Talleles of PROC gene had unfavorable outcome more often than patients with homozygous C alleles. Survival time from end point from carrier phenotype TT and CTis 2.19 +/- 0.18 r. years against 2.46 +/- 0.16 from carrier phenotype CCgene PROC. The obtained data allows to assume the important role of the genes which are responsible for functioning of system of a hemostasis, in the accelerated formation of failures at the patients who had a coronary syndrome.
With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p