There is an increase in primary and overall mortality in the Sverdlovsk regional areas exposed to eastern-Urals radiation traces. The children mostly commonly have diseases of the endocrine and nervous systems, sensory and respiratory organs. The adults have predominantly neoplasms, diseases of the nervous, digestive, and urogenital systems and sensory organs. In the study period (1990-2000), morbidity considerably increased in the Kamensk Region marked by the highest radioactive contamination. There was an association of the morbidity rates with environmental (Bogdanovichsky District) and socioeconomic (Kamensky and Bogdanovichsky Districts) factors and with level of radioactive contamination (Kamensky and Bogdanovichsky Districts).
Due to the massive pollution of the Techa-Iset river system with the radioactive sewage of the Mayak industrial association in the 1950s, the factors responsible for the incidence of diseases were studied in 5 districts of the Kurgan Region along the territory of which rivers flow. There is a direct relationship of children's morbidity to ambient air pollution. The determinants of adult morbidity are air pollution and water quality. There is an inverse correlation of morbidity with the provision with therapists and with the economic indices of districts. The prevalence of some types of diseases, such as those of the endocrine and respiratory systems, ulcer disease correlates with the ranking position of a district in the level of pollution in the Techa and Iset Rivers.
The comparative contribution of environmental factors to morbidity among the preschoolchildren of the town of Orsk was studied by applying currently available methods. Great morbidity is favoured by toxicosis during maternal second-half pregnancy, the poor health status of neonatal babies at birth and by the end of the first year of life, going to the nurseries where vegetable and calorie diets are not observed, the location of kindergartens in the areas with high traffic, high ambient air pollution with sulfuric anhydride and acid, and with substandard drinking water quality. Lower morbidity in children is in turn promoted by greater quantities of vegetables and fruits in the meals both at home and in the nurseries and kindergartens, over 2-month breast feeding, no adverse working conditions in their parents, as well as implementation of conditioning procedures in children.
Kamensk-Ural'skiy, Sverdlovsk Province, is one of the Russian industrial cities and towns exposed to a combination of radiation and chemical pollutions. This is a large industrial center of the mid-Urals, where enterprises of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, power engineering. Intensive chemical and radiation pollutions of Kamensk-Ural'skiy have an adverse impact on its population's health, which is manifested by higher morbidity rates among both children and adolescents. Comparing its matched areas by using routine analytical methods has defined the contribution of radiation to increased morbidity in different age groups, which is caused by a combination of chemical and radiation pollutions of the environment. The incidence of concomitant diseases may be an important additional indicator of the impact of environmental pollution on human health.