This study is devoted to the practice of the application of the current legislative regulatory and procedural base for the occupational health and safety issues. The issues of the occupational risks assessment at the enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region are discussed Approaches to the creation of the occupational risk management and assessment systems are proposed.
There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes.
The authors summarize theoretical principles of increasing human resistence to toxic effects of inorganic compounds polluting occupational environment and habitat, exemplify practical use of this prophylactic trend.
Negative pollution effects from atmospheric discharges by aluminium facilities exerted on population health can be traced by the parameters of the reproductive function in women, physical development of newborns, general and differential morbidity of children aged below one year as well as by anthropometric signs in birth, morbidity of children and adults, mortality, including due to oncology. The introduction of modern technologies including the preliminarily fire anode treatment and the use of highly effective methods of purification of industrial wastes cut the concentration (in atmospheric air) of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and of solid fluorides as well as of aluminium to maximum permissible concentration; it also essentially reduced the content of benzapilene. A better atmospheric air observed yet in the course of renovation contributed to a lower morbidity of children, aged below one year, as well as to the prevalence of diseases affecting the eyes, respiratory and digestive organs, skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue; it also cuts the number of congenital anomalies versus the data obtained in a neighboring district.
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis.
The studies conducted in Krasnouralsk (Sverdlovsk region) proved that environmental pollution with lead in the area subjected to releases by copper-melting enterprise creates significant risk of lead accumulation in preschoolers especially prone to unfavorable factors. Considering various environmental lead sources, biokinetic analog formation reliably forecasts serum lead levels. Soil polluted with lead, as the analog considers, is the most important environmental lead source. The authors suggest a system of prophylactic measures based on analysis of children's health risk caused by environmental pollution with lead.