To investigate the incidence and characteristics of acute time-loss injuries in Finnish junior floorball league players.
Prospective cohort study with 3-year follow-up.
One hundred and eighty-six female and male players (mean age 16.6±1.4) took part in the follow-up study (2011-2014). The training hours and games were recorded on a team diary. Floorball related acute injuries were registered and verified by a research physician. The injury incidence was expressed as the number of injuries per 1000h of exposure. Incidence rate was calculated separately for games and practices, and for males and females.
One hundred and forty-four acute time-loss injuries occurred. Injury incidence was 26.87 (95% CI 20.10-33.63) in junior league games, and 1.25 (95% CI 0.99-1.52) in team practices. Female players had significantly higher game injury rate (IRR 1.88, 1.12-3.19) and joint/ligament injury rate (IRR 1.70, 1.07-2.73) compared to males. Eighty-one percent of the injuries affected the lower limbs. The ankle (37%), knee (18%), and thigh (14%) were the most commonly injured body sites. More than half of injuries involved joint or ligaments (54%). Twenty-six percent of the injuries were severe causing more than 28days absence from sports. Eight anterior cruciate ligament ruptures of the knee occurred among seven female players.
The study revealed that risk of ankle and knee ligament injuries is high in adolescent floorball, specifically among female players.
To investigate life expectancy and mortality among former elite athletes and controls.
HR analysis of cause-specific deaths sourced from the national death registry for former Finnish male endurance, team and power sports athletes (N=2363) and controls (N=1657). The median follow-up time was 50 years.
Median life expectancy was higher in the endurance (79.1 years, 95% CI 76.6 to 80.6) and team (78.8, 78.1 to 79.8) sports athletes than in controls (72.9, 71.8 to 74.3). Compared to controls, risk for total mortality adjusted for socioeconomic status and birth cohort was lower in the endurance ((HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.79)) and team (0.80, 0.72 to 0.89) sports athletes, and slightly lower in the power sports athletes (0.93, 0.85 to 1.03). HR for ischaemic heart disease mortality was lower in the endurance (0.68, 0.54 to 0.86) and team sports (0.73, 0.60 to 0.89) athletes. HR for stroke mortality was 0.52 (0.33 to 0.83) in the endurance and 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88) in the team sports athletes. Compared to controls, the risk for smoking-related cancer mortality was lower in the endurance (HR 0.20, 0.08 to 0.47) and power sports (0.40, 0.25 to 0.66) athletes. For dementia mortality, the power sports athletes, particularly boxers, had increased risk (HR 4.20, 2.30 to 7.81).
Elite athletes have 5-6 years additional life expectancy when compared to men who were healthy as young adults. Lower mortality for cardiovascular disease was in part due to lower rates of smoking, as tobacco-related cancer mortality was especially low.
Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding.
This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %). The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (
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In older adults, mobility limitations often coexist with overweight or obesity, suggesting that similar factors may underlie both traits. This study examined the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association between adiposity and mobility in older women. Body fat percentage (bioimpedance test), walking speed over 10 m, and distance walked in a 6-min test were evaluated in 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 104 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin sisters reared together, aged 63-76 years. Genetic and environmental influences on each trait were estimated using age-adjusted multivariate genetic modeling. The analyses showed that the means (and s.d.) for body fat percentage, walking speed, and walking endurance were 33.2+/-7.3%, 1.7+/-0.3 m/s and 529.7+/-75.4 m, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between adiposity and walking speed was -0.32 and between adiposity and endurance it was -0.33. Genetic influences explained 80% of the association between adiposity and speed, and 65% of adiposity and walking endurance. Cross-trait genetic influences accounted for 12% of the variability in adiposity, 56% in walking speed, and 34% in endurance. Trait-specific genetic influences were also detected for adiposity (54%) and walking endurance (13%), but not speed. In conclusion, among community-living older women, an inverse association was found between adiposity and mobility that was mostly due to the effect of shared genes. This result suggests that the identification of genetic variants for body fat metabolism may also provide understanding of the development of mobility limitations in older women.
High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
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Dyspnea has not been widely used as a proxy measure of fitness. Because dyspnea score is simple to obtain, it could be a screening tool for identifying individuals with low fitness and increased mortality risk. The aim was to study how baseline dyspnea, and changes in it, predicts all-cause mortality.
The prospective Finnish Twin Cohort includes all same-sex twin pairs born in Finland before 1958. Dyspnea was measured with a four-question modified Medical Research Council scale. The level and change in dyspnea between 1975 and 1981 were used as the baseline predictors. Altogether, 21,379 twin individuals (8672 complete twin pairs) had answered dyspnea questions in 1975 and 1981. Cox proportional hazards model was used for mortality analysis starting from the 1981 response date until December 31, 2010.
Increased mortality was observed among individuals with persistent dyspnea (dyspnea in 1975 and 1981); full covariate adjusted HR of death was 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.52), whereas the HR for dyspnea developers and those with dyspnea remission were 1.16 (1.05-1.25) and 1.07 (0.97-1.19), respectively, compared with asymptomatic individuals. Among healthy subjects at 1981 baseline, the corresponding HR values were 1.34 (1.16-1.54), 1.15 (0.97-1.37), and 1.05 (0.89-1.23). Within-pair analyses of death discordant pairs showed a fully adjusted HR for persistent dyspnea of 1.47 (1.23-1.77) for all twin pairs and 2.64 (1.21-5.74) for healthy monozygotic pairs.
Persistent dyspnea predicts increased mortality during a 28-yr follow-up even among individuals without clinically overt disease known to associate with dyspnea. The dyspnea score, which can be easily obtained and correlates with fitness outcomes, could be a screening tool for identifying unfit individuals at an increased mortality risk.
Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change the objectively measured SB or PA of the mother-child pairs. However, mothers and children seemed to be more sedentary at home, and therefore interventions for decreasing SB and increasing PA should be targeted in the home environment.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether persistent leisure-time physical activity, adjusted for genetic liability and childhood experiences, protects against chronic diseases, early signs of disability, and loss of life satisfaction.
From 5663 healthy adult twin pairs, we identified 146 pairs who were discordant for both intensity and volume of leisure physical activity in 1975 and 1981. Of them, both members of 95 pairs were alive and participated in our follow-up study in 2005 when chronic diseases (such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoarthritis), life satisfaction, and disability were assessed by a structured telephone interview. The mean age of the participants was 58 yr (range = 47-79 yr) in 2005. Paired tests were used in the analyses.
At the end of follow-up, the active cotwins had a decreased risk of reporting at least one chronic diseases, whereas active monozygotic (MZ) twins had two or more chronic diseases significantly less often than their inactive cotwins (odds ratio [OR] = 0.14, P = 0.031). Overall, the risk for type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance (OR = 0.09, P = 0.022) and elevated blood pressure (OR = 0.46, P = 0.039) was decreased among the active cotwins. These effects were seen clearly among dizygotic twins but not always among small number of monozygotic twins. The active cotwins reported greater life satisfaction (P = 0.047) and tended to be less likely to be hospitalized (P = 0.065), although active cotwins had somewhat more sports-related injuries (OR = 1.9, P = 0.051) than inactive cotwins. Studied disability variables did not differ between the active and the inactive cotwins.
Physical activity reduces the risk for chronic diseases and helps in maintaining life satisfaction. However, genetic factors may play a role in this association because some findings emerged more clearly among dizygotic than monozygotic twins discordant for physical activity.
Effects of a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program on the biochemical composition and morphology of cartilage in women with mild knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee result in decreased function, loss of working capacity and extensive social and medical costs. There is a need to investigate and develop effective interventions to minimise the impact of and even prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Aquatic exercise has been shown to be effective at reducing the impact of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, design and intervention of a study investigating the effect of an aquatic resistance exercise intervention on cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis.
A minimum of 80 volunteers who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited from the local population through newspaper advertisements. Following initial assessment volunteers will be randomised into two groups. The intervention group will participate in a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program of 1-hour duration 3 times a week for four months. The control group will be asked to maintain normal care during this period. Primary outcome measure for this study is the biochemical composition of knee cartilage measured using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging; T2 relaxation time and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition, knee cartilage morphology as regional cartilage thickness will be studied. Secondary outcomes include measures of body composition and bone traits using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pain, function using questionnaires and physical performance tests and quality of life. Measurements will be performed at baseline, after the 4-month intervention period and at one year follow up.
This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program has on the biochemical composition of cartilage in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. This is the first study to investigate what impact aquatic exercise has on human articular cartilage. In addition it will investigate the effect aquatic exercise has on physical function, pain, bone and body composition and quality of life. The results of this study will help optimise the prescription of aquatic exercise to persons with mild knee osteoarthritis.