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Allergy and Sensitization during Childhood Associated with Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Marine Pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96633
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun 20;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-2010
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Lars K Poulsen
Carsten Heilmann
Ulrike Steuerwald
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Harvard School of Public Health.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun 20;
Date
Jun-20-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Background: Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region. Objectives: The objective was to assess whether sensitization and development of allergic disease was associated with duration of breast-feeding and prenatal or postnatal exposures to PCBs and methylmercury. Methods: A cohort of 656 singleton births was formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001. Duration of breast-feeding and history of asthma and atopic dermatitis were recorded at clinical examinations at ages 5 and 7 years. PCB and mercury concentrations were determined in blood samples obtained at parturition and at follow-up. Serum from 464 children (71%) at age 7 years was analyzed for total IgE and grass-specific IgE. Results: The total IgE concentration in serum at age 7 years was positively associated both with the concomitant serum PCB concentration and with the duration of breastfeeding. However, the effect only of the latter was substantially attenuated in a multivariate analysis. A raised grass-specific IgE concentration compatible with sensitization was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding and inversely associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure. However, a history of asthma or atopic dermatitis was not associated with the duration of breast-feeding, but children with atopic dermatitis had lower prenatal PCB exposures than non-allergic children. Conclusions: These findings suggest that developmental exposure to immunotoxicants may both increase and decrease the risk of allergic disease, and that associations between breast-feeding and subsequent allergic disease in children may, at least in part, reflect lactational exposure to immunotoxic food contaminants.
PubMed ID
20562055 View in PubMed
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Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279289
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2017 Jan 16;:1-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-16-2017
Author
Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Tina Kold Jensen
Christa Elyse Osuna
Maria Skaalum Petersen
Ulrike Steuerwald
Flemming Nielsen
Lars K Poulsen
Pál Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2017 Jan 16;:1-11
Date
Jan-16-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR-unvaccinated children, higher levels of the five PFASs at age 5 years were associated with increased odds of asthma at ages 5 and 13. The associations were reversed among MMR-vaccinated children. Prenatal PFAS exposure was not associated with childhood asthma or allergic diseases regardless of MMR vaccination status. In conclusion, PFAS exposure at age 5 was associated with increased risk of asthma among a small subgroup of MMR-unvaccinated children but not among MMR-vaccinated children. While PFAS exposure may impact immune system functions, this study suggests that MMR vaccination might be a potential effect-modifier.
PubMed ID
28091126 View in PubMed
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Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7 y: a prospective cohort study of 656 children from the Faroe Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106521
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan;99(1):5-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Jeanett L Tang-Péronard
Berit L Heitmann
Helle R Andersen
Ulrike Steuerwald
Philippe Grandjean
Pál Weihe
Tina K Jensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark (JLT-P, HRA, PG, and TKJ); the Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Frederiksberg, Denmark (JLT-P and BLH); the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark (BLH); the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, Australia (BLH); the Department of Occupational Medicine and Public Health, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (US); and the Department of Environmental Medicine, Faroese Hospital System, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (PW).
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan;99(1):5-13
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Body Weight - drug effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood - toxicity
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Maternal Exposure
Milk, human - chemistry
Obesity - chemically induced
Overweight - blood - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Prospective Studies
Waist Circumference - drug effects
Abstract
Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life.
We examined the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and subsequent obesity at 5 and 7 y of age.
From 1997 to 2000, 656 pregnant Faroese women were recruited. PCB and DDE were measured in maternal serum and breast milk, and children's weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured at clinical examinations at 5 and 7 y of age. The change in body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y of age was calculated. Analyses were performed by using multiple linear regression models for girls and boys separately, taking into account maternal prepregnancy BMI.
For 7-y-old girls who had overweight mothers, PCB was associated with increased BMI (ß = 2.07, P = 0.007), and PCB and DDE were associated with an increased change in BMI from 5 to 7 y of age (PCB: ß = 1.23, P = 0.003; DDE: ß = 1.11, P = 0.008). No association was observed with BMI in girls with normal-weight mothers. PCB was associated with increased WC in girls with overweight mothers (ß = 2.48, P = 0.001) and normal-weight mothers (ß = 1.25, P = 0.04); DDE was associated with increased WC only in girls with overweight mothers (ß = 2.21, P = 0.002). No associations were observed between PCB or DDE and BMI in 5-y-old girls. For boys, no associations were observed.
Results suggest that prenatal exposure to PCB and DDE may play a role for subsequent obesity development. Girls whose mothers have a high prepregnancy BMI seem most affected.
PubMed ID
24153349 View in PubMed
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Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261502
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015 Apr 3;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-3-2015
Author
Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann
Christa Elyse Osuna
Ulrike Steuerwald
Pál Weihe
Lars K Poulsen
Philippe Grandjean
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015 Apr 3;
Date
Apr-3-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The existing literature on the association between measles vaccination and subsequent risk of allergic disease is inconclusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination administered in early childhood was associated with asthma and allergic diseases at ages 5, 7 and 13 years in a birth cohort.
In the Faroe Islands, 640 children were followed from birth. Follow-up examinations at ages 5, 7 and 13 years included a physical examination and a maternal questionnaire about the child's health. At age 7, total and grass-specific IgE was quantified in the child's serum, and at age 13, the children underwent skin prick tests (SPT). The child's vaccination card was reviewed at examinations.
At age 5, 533 of 555 children had been vaccinated for MMR. After confounder adjustment we found early life MMR vaccination to be associated with a two-third reduction in the odds of asthma (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12; 0.90) and hypersensitivity/allergy (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.11; 0.88) at age 5, and the substantially decreased odds of asthma were replicated at age 13 (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08; 0.56). At age 7, serum total IgE was reduced by 62.8% (CI 95%: -84.3%; -11.9%) in the vaccinated children. MMR vaccination was not significantly associated with allergic rhinoconjuctivitis symptoms, eczema, or SPT reactions at age 13.
MMR vaccination early in life may have a protective effect against allergy at least up to age 7 and against asthma through age 13 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
25845848 View in PubMed
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Attenuated growth of breast-fed children exposed to increased concentrations of methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186651
Source
FASEB J. 2003 Apr;17(6):699-701
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Ulrike Steuerwald
Birger Heinzow
Larry L Needham
Poul J Jørgensen
Pál Weihe
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. pgrand@health.sdu.dk
Source
FASEB J. 2003 Apr;17(6):699-701
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height - drug effects
Body Weight - drug effects
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Growth - drug effects
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Breast-feeding has been linked to slowed postnatal growth. Although the basis for this "weanling's dilemma" is unclear, environmental contaminants in human milk may be of relevance. We studied a Faroese birth cohort of 182 singleton children, born at term in 1994-95. Concentrations of mercury in cord blood and of polychlorinated biphenyls in maternal milk were measured, and duration of breast-feeding was recorded. At 18 months, children who had been exclusively breast-fed for at least 6 months weighed 0.59 kg less [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03, 1.16 kg] and were 1.50 cm [95% CI = 0.52, 2.47 cm] shorter than those not breast-fed. However, calculated transfer of contaminants from human milk fully explained the attenuated growth. Irrespective of duration of breast-feeding, a doubling of the mercury concentration in cord blood was associated with a decrease in weight at 18 months by 0.19 kg (95% CI = 0.03, 0.35 kg) and in height by 0.26 cm (95% CI = -0.02, 0.55 cm). Weight and height at 42 months showed the same tendencies, but the main effect occurred before 18 months of age. Thus, in communities with increased contaminant exposures, risks associated with lactational transfer of toxicants to the infant must be considered when judging the benefits of prolonged breast-feeding.
PubMed ID
12586743 View in PubMed
Less detail

Behavioral difficulties in 7-year old children in relation to developmental exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276731
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Sep 29;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-29-2016
Author
Youssef Oulhote
Ulrike Steuerwald
Frodi Debes
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Sep 29;
Date
Sep-29-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children.
Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively). We used multivariable regressions and structural equations models to estimate the covariate-adjusted associations between serum-PFAS concentrations and behavioral difficulties, as assessed by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) at age 7.
Serum-PFOS and PFHxS concentrations declined over time, whereas PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA tended to increase. No associations were observed between prenatal PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores. However, a two-fold increase in 5-year serum-PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA concentrations was associated with increases in total SDQ scores by 1.03 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.95), 0.72 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.38) and 0.78 points (95% CI: 0.01, 1.55), respectively. For SDQ subscales, significant associations were found in regard to hyperactivity, peer relationship, and conduct problems, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems and autism screening composite scores. Cross-sectional analyses at age 7years showed possible sex-dimorphic associations between PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores, where girls had consistently positive associations with SDQ scores whereas boys exhibited a pattern of negative or null associations.
Higher serum PFAS concentrations at ages 5- and 7-years, but not prenatally, were associated with parent-reported behavioral problems at age 7.
PubMed ID
27692925 View in PubMed
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Carnitine levels in 26,462 individuals from the nationwide screening program for primary carnitine deficiency in the Faroe Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259960
Source
J Inherit Metab Dis. 2014 Mar;37(2):215-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Jan Rasmussen
Olav W Nielsen
Nils Janzen
Morten Duno
Hannes Gislason
Lars Køber
Ulrike Steuerwald
Allan M Lund
Source
J Inherit Metab Dis. 2014 Mar;37(2):215-22
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cardiomyopathies - blood - diagnosis - genetics
Carnitine - blood - deficiency - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Dried Blood Spot Testing - methods
Female
Genetic Testing - methods
Genotype
Humans
Hyperammonemia - blood - diagnosis - genetics
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Muscular Diseases - blood - diagnosis - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation and has been associated to episodes of sudden death in the Faroe Islands. Data are presented from the nationwide population based Faroese screening program to find people with low carnitine levels indicating PCD.
Whole blood samples from dried blood spots were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with and without butylation. Genetic analyses were performed in all people with non-butylated free carnitine (fC0) below 7 µmol/L.
55 % (n?=?26,462) of the entire population was screened and 89 PCD patients were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 1:297 of PCD in the Faroe Islands. Carnitine levels were positively correlated to age in both males and females (p??G (p.N32S) (n?=?20).
Carnitine levels differ by gender and age. A lower cut-off of 5 µmol/L in fC0 was appropriate to identify c.95A?>?G homozygotes. The prevalence of PCD in the Faroe Islands is the highest reported in the world (1:297).
Notes
Erratum In: J Inherit Metab Dis. 2014 Jul;37(4):657Gislason, Hannes [added]
PubMed ID
23653224 View in PubMed
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Early-life exposures to persistent organic pollutants in relation to overweight in preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289302
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:145-153
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2017
Author
Martina Karlsen
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
Ulrike Steuerwald
Youssef Oulhote
Damaskini Valvi
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:145-153
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anthropometry
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Endocrine Disruptors - blood - toxicity
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - toxicity
Humans
Infant
Overweight - blood - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - blood - chemically induced - epidemiology
Prevalence
Abstract
Current knowledge on obesogenic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is equivocal. We therefore evaluated the associations between early-life POP exposures and body mass index (BMI) in 444 Faroese children born in 2007-2009. POPs were measured in maternal 2-week postpartum serum and child age-5 serum. Linear regression and generalised linear models assessed the associations with continuous and dichotomous BMI z-scores, respectively, at ages 18 months and/or 5 years. Maternal serum concentrations of HCB, PFOS and PFOA were associated with increased BMI z-scores and/or overweight risk (i.e. BMI z-score=85th WHO percentile). No clear association was found for maternal serum-PCBs, p,p'-DDE, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA. In cross-sectional analyses, we observed a pattern of inverse associations between child serum-POPs and BMI z-scores at age 5, perhaps due to reverse causation that requires attention in future prospective analyses. Findings in this recent cohort support a role of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors in the childhood obesity epidemic.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27496715 View in PubMed
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Early-Life Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Relation to Overweight in Preschool Children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275131
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Aug 2;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2-2016
Author
Martina Karlsen
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
Ulrike Steuerwald
Youssef Oulhote
Damaskini Valvi
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Aug 2;
Date
Aug-2-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Current knowledge on obesogenic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is equivocal. We therefore evaluated the associations between early-life POP exposures and body mass index (BMI) in 444 Faroese children born in 2007-2009. POPs were measured in maternal 2-week postpartum serum and child age-5 serum. Linear regression and generalised linear models assessed the associations with continuous and dichotomous BMI z-scores, respectively, at ages 18 months and/or 5 years. Maternal serum concentrations of HCB, PFOS and PFOA were associated with increased BMI z-scores and/or overweight risk (i.e. BMI z-score= 85th WHO percentile). No clear association was found for maternal serum-PCBs, p,p'-DDE, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA. In cross-sectional analyses, we observed a pattern of inverse associations between child serum-POPs and BMI z-scores at age 5, perhaps due to reverse causation that requires attention in future prospective analyses. Findings in this recent cohort support a role of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors in the childhood obesity epidemic.
PubMed ID
27496715 View in PubMed
Less detail

Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289794
Source
Environ Int. 2017 10; 107:205-215
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Damaskini Valvi
Youssef Oulhote
Pal Weihe
Christine Dalgård
Kristian S Bjerve
Ulrike Steuerwald
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: dvalvi@hsph.harvard.edu.
Source
Environ Int. 2017 10; 107:205-215
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Diabetes, Gestational - blood - epidemiology
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fetal Macrosomia - blood
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury - analysis - blood
Pregnancy - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased availability of glucose and macronutrients in fetal circulation and macrosomia. Therefore, the role of GDM in the association between metabolism-disrupting chemicals and birth size deserves attention.
We examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures.
We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs: polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)), and five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and hair and cord blood mercury concentrations were measured. We used regression (single-pollutants) and structural equation models (SEMs) (multiple-pollutant analyses using latent constructs of OCs, PFASs and mercury) to estimate the associations with GDM and birth size measures, accounting for mediation and/or effect modification by GDM.
Serum-DDE and hair-mercury concentrations were associated with GDM (adjusted OR per concentration doubling: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.77 for DDE, and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99 for mercury), but in multiple pollutant-adjusted SEMs only a positive association between OC exposure and GDM remained significant (change in GDM odds per OC doubling: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86). PCB and overall OC exposure were positively associated with head circumference (SEM; mean change per OC doubling: 0.13cm; 95% CI, 0.01. 0.25). Overall PFAS exposure was inversely associated with birth weight (SEM; mean change per PFAS doubling: -169g; 95% CI: -359, 21), and for many single-PFASs we found a pattern of inverse associations with birth weight and head circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures.
We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence.
Notes
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