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The association between active and passive smoking and frequent pain in a general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96355
Source
Eur J Pain. 2010 Jun 2;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2-2010
Author
Charlotta Pisinger
Mette Aadahl
Ulla Toft
Hanne Birke
Joakim Zytphen-Adeler
Torben Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Pain. 2010 Jun 2;
Date
Jun-2-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether the association between back pain, and other types of chronic pain, and smoking is causal or not. AIM: To examine the relationship between frequent pain and smoking, and between frequent pain and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: A randomised population-based study, Inter99 (1999-2006), Denmark. Subjects in the intervention groups (N=6784; participation rate=52.5%) completed self-report questionnaires. Cross-sectional data from baseline were analysed in adjusted logistic regression analyses to investigate the relationship between active and passive smoking and frequent pain in the back, abdomen, joints and head. RESULTS: Daily smokers reported significantly more frequent pain in every of the six locations, and in several, minimum three, locations (OR=1.98 (95%CI=1.6-2.4)) than never smokers. We found a dose-response relationship between frequent pain and intensity of both active and passive smoking (test-for-trend p
PubMed ID
20627783 View in PubMed
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The Danish fat tax-Effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270653
Source
Prev Med. 2015 Aug;77:200-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Malene Bødker
Charlotta Pisinger
Ulla Toft
Torben Jørgensen
Source
Prev Med. 2015 Aug;77:200-3
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Dietary Fats - adverse effects - economics
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Myocardial Ischemia - prevention & control
Risk factors
Taxes - economics
Abstract
To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013.
We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods.
The total sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%.
The Danish fat tax had a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more comprehensive tax-subsidy schemes.
Notes
Comment In: Prev Med. 2015 Aug;77:204-625998882
PubMed ID
25982852 View in PubMed
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Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123236
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Nov;15(11):2091-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Marianne S Sabinsky
Ulla Toft
Klaus K Andersen
Inge Tetens
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark. masab@food.dtu.dk
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Nov;15(11):2091-9
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Denmark
Diet - standards
Humans
Lunch
Nutrition Assessment
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years.
A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home.
At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included.
A total of 254 school lunches.
A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish.
The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.
PubMed ID
22717318 View in PubMed
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The development in body mass index, overweight and obesity in three regions in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269137
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2015 Apr;25(2):273-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Ulla Toft
Anker Lund Vinding
Finn Breinholt Larsen
Michael Falk Hvidberg
Kirstine Magtengaard Robinson
Charlotte Glümer
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2015 Apr;25(2):273-8
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Oxazoles
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased markedly the past decades. However, recent studies have indicated that the development differ between different socio-economic groups and different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the development in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006/2007 to 2010 by age, gender, socio-economic factors and geographical regions.
Two cross-sectional surveys in three regions in Denmark (The Capital Region of Denmark, The Central Denmark Region and The North Denmark Region) were performed in 2006/2007 and 2010. A random sample of citizens aged more than or equal to 25 years was invited to participate. The overall response rate was 57.5% (n = 177 076). Data from questionnaire and central registers were included.
In 2006/2007, the prevalence of overweight, including obesity, was 54.3% and 36.8% among men and women, respectively. Of the overweight men 12.8% were obese and 11.8% women were obese. The prevalence was highest in the Northern region and among those who were older, had short education, was outside labour market, had low income and residents in rural areas. In 2010, the prevalence of overweight had increased to 56.3% and 39.6% in men and women, respectively (P
PubMed ID
25414483 View in PubMed
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Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity--a prospective study of three independent cohorts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259633
Source
Nutr J. 2014;13:43
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sofus C Larsen
Lars Angquist
Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia
Tea Skaaby
Nina Roswall
Anne Tjønneland
Jytte Halkjær
Kim Overvad
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Allan Linneberg
Lise Lotte N Husemoen
Ulla Toft
Berit L Heitmann
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Source
Nutr J. 2014;13:43
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diet
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Prospective Studies
Waist Circumference
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (?BW) and waist circumference (?WC).
A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ?BW or ?WC. SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models.
We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC. Regarding SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ?WC of 0.039?cm/year (P?=?0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100?mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ?WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ?BW.
In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24886192 View in PubMed
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Dietary patterns predict changes in two-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose concentrations in middle-aged adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153029
Source
J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):588-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Cathrine Lau
Ulla Toft
Inge Tetens
Bendix Carstensen
Torben Jørgensen
Oluf Pedersen
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark. cala@steno.dk
Source
J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):588-93
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Denmark
Diet
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Time Factors
Abstract
We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive measures of FPG and 2h-PG. A higher modern score (of 1 SD) predicted an annual decrease in 2h-PG of 0.015 mmol/L (P
PubMed ID
19158222 View in PubMed
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Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits? The Inter99 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130081
Source
Prev Med. 2012 Jan;54(1):88-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Ulla Toft
Marie Jakobsen
Mette Aadahl
Charlotta Pisinger
Torben Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup University Hospital, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark. ulto@glo.regionh.dk
Source
Prev Med. 2012 Jan;54(1):88-93
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Intervention Studies
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk Reduction Behavior
Social Class
Abstract
To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.
The study was an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention study with a control group, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants in the intervention group (n=6 091) received lifestyle intervention during a five-year period. The control group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses were used, including interaction term between intervention effect and socioeconomic position (SEP) and analysed separately for men and women. SEP was measured as length of education and employment status and dietary habits were measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire.
Men with a short education improved their dietary habits more (net-change [95% confidence interval]) (0.25 points [-0.01;0.52]) than men with longer education (0.02 points [-0.09;0.14]), (interaction: p=0.02). Furthermore, unemployed women improved their dietary intake more (0.33 points [0.05;0.61]) than employed women (0.01 points [-0.10;0.11]), (interaction: p=0.03). Similar results were found for fruit intake, whereas no significant interactions were found for fish, fat and vegetable intake.
Individualised dietary interventions do not increase and may even decrease or hinder further widening of the social inequalities in health due to unhealthy dietary habits among socially disadvantaged individuals.
PubMed ID
22036837 View in PubMed
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Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids: the role of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275839
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Dec;22(12):1567-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Betina H Thuesen
Ulla Toft
Lone P Buhelt
Allan Linneberg
Nele Friedrich
Matthias Nauck
Henri Wallaschofski
Torben Jørgensen
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Dec;22(12):1567-74
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Biomarkers - blood - urine
Blood pressure
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Nonlinear Dynamics
Obesity - complications - diagnosis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sodium - urine
Sodium Chloride, Dietary - administration & dosage - adverse effects - urine
Urinalysis
Young Adult
Abstract
Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account.
We included 3294 men and women aged 18-69 years from a general population based study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was calculated by measurements of creatinine and sodium concentration in spot urine in combination with information of sex, age, height and weight. The relations of estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models.
The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80?g and 7.52?g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (ß-estimates 1.18?mm Hg/g salt (systolic) and 0.74?mm Hg/g salt (diastolic), p?
PubMed ID
25281483 View in PubMed
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Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population: can spot urine substitute 24-hour urine samples?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263503
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Oct;21(10):1300-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Ulla Toft
Charlotte Cerqueira
Anne Helms Andreasen
Betina Heinsbæk Thuesen
Peter Laurberg
Lars Ovesen
Hans Perrild
Torben Jørgensen
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Oct;21(10):1300-7
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Biological Markers - urine
Creatinine - urine
Denmark
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Natriuresis
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Sodium Chloride, Dietary - urine
Time Factors
Urinalysis - methods
Abstract
A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations.
To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two different prediction methods in a Danish population.
Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population.
The measured 24-hour sodium excretion (median, 5th to 95th percentile) was men 195 (110 to 360) and women 139 (61 to 258), whereas the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion for the Tanaka model was men 171 (117 to 222) and women 153 (92 to 228) and for the Danish model was men 207 (146 to 258); women 134 (103 to 163). The Spearman correlation between predicted and measured 24-hour sodium excretion was 0.39 and 0.49 for the Tanaka and the Danish model, respectively. For both prediction models, the proportion of individuals classified in the same or adjacent quintile was 74% for men and 64% for women.
Both prediction models gave a reasonable classification of individuals according to their sodium excretion. However, the median daily sodium intake was estimated more precisely by the Danish model, especially among men.
PubMed ID
23559538 View in PubMed
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