To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists.
A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-95 years who were interviewed about alcohol drinking habits and underwent a clinical oral and dental examination. Multiple regression analyses were applied for studying the association between total weekly alcohol consumption, beverage-specific alcohol consumption, beverage preference (defined as the highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (= 20 versus >20 remaining teeth).
The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76] in women drinking 1-14 drinks per week and 0.34 (95 percent CI 0.16-0.74) in women with an intake of more than 14 drinks per week compared with abstainers. Similar relations could also be obtained for type-specific alcohol intake of wine and for wine and spirits preference among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences.
In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with abstainers. Among men, those who preferred beer also had a higher number of teeth.
AIMS: The most commonly used indicator of fertility, the period total fertility rate (TFR(p)), tends to underestimate actual fertility when women delay childbearing. The objective of this study was to examine to which extent fluctuations in Danish fertility rates result from changes in timing of births and, thus, whether the conventional TFR(p) is a distorted indicator of fertility quantum. In addition, we investigated whether such changes in timing explained the observed regional differences in the TFR(p) in Denmark. METHODS: The study applied age-, period-, county-, and parity-specific data from the Danish Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset, 1980-2001. We evaluated fluctuations in period fertility rates by the tempo-adjusted TFR(') - a proposed variant of the conventional TFR(p) taking period changes in timing of births into account. Tempo-effects were given by the difference between TFR(p) and TFR(') , and these period measures were compared to actual cohort fertility. RESULTS: Mean age at childbearing increased with more than 3 years over the period 1980-2001 leading to considerable differences between TFR(p) and TFR(' ) . A tempo-effect of up to 0.347 children per woman was observed. Comparisons with actual cohort fertility showed consistency with the TFR('). However, tempo-adjustment did not attenuate observed regional differences. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the conventional TFR(p) consistently underestimates the fertility quantum in periods characterized by changes in timing of births, and that the TFR(' ) generally provides good indication of actual cohort quantum for the period in question. Considerable tempo-effects were observed within counties; however, differences between regions were not explained by changes in timing of births.
In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established.
To describe the design, measurement procedures, and baseline values for COHS including spatial distribution of restorations and dental caries as well as reasons for non-participation.
Seven hundred and eighty-three individuals aged 65 years or older, from a total of 1918 invited elderly people, underwent an interview regarding oral health-related behaviour and a clinical oral examination including measurement of unstimulated whole saliva flow rate.
Twelve percent of the COHS was edentulous. The number of dental restorations was higher for women compared to men; however, men had more caries than women. Coronal caries was most frequent on mesial and distal surfaces and on the maxillary incisors and canines; root caries was most frequent on labial surfaces and evenly distributed within the dentition. Only 41% of all invited elderly people accepted the invitation, with old age and poor health being the primary reasons for non-participation.
The baseline values for COHS show that a substantial proportion of the participants had retained a natural dentition and that dental caries was prevalent with the anterior maxillary teeth being most affected.
Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol consumption, smoking and patterns of hospitalization, defined as admission and duration of hospitalization.
The study was based on 12 698 men and women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We related smoking and alcohol to hospital admission from any cause, smoking- and alcohol-related diseases and duration of hospitalization in a two-part random effects model.
Smoking status was strongly associated with admission and duration of hospitalization. For smoking-related admissions, odds ratios (OR) of 2.77 (95% CI 2.13-3.59) in men and 6.30 (95% CI 4.80-8.26) in women were observed among smokers of >20 g/day compared to never-smokers. For any admission (excl. smoking-related causes), corresponding ORs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.15-1.51) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.58-2.06), respectively. In men, a U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and risk of admission was found, both regarding any admission and admissions due to alcohol-related diseases. Alcohol was associated with alcohol-related admissions in women but not with duration of hospitalization.
Smoking was associated with increased risk of hospital admission and duration of hospitalization. A U-shaped relation was observed for alcohol consumption and risk of hospitalization in men, but no effect on duration was observed. In women, however, alcohol consumption was only vaguely associated with admission and duration of hospitalization.
Arsenic is a risk factor for several noncommunicable diseases, even at low doses. Urinary arsenic (UAs) concentration is a good biomarker for internal dose, and demographic, dietary, and lifestyle factors are proposed predictors in nonoccupationally exposed populations. However, most predictor studies are limited in terms of size and number of predictors. We investigated demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants of UAs concentrations in 744 postmenopausal Danish women who had UAs measurements and questionnaire data on potential predictors. UAs concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and determinants of the concentration were investigated using univariate and multivariate regression models. We used a forward selection procedure for model optimization. In all models, fish, alcohol, and poultry intake were associated with higher UAs concentration, and tap water, fruit, potato, and dairy intake with lower concentration. A forward regression model explained 35% (R²) of the variation in concentrations. Age, smoking, education, and area of residence did not predict concentration. The results were relatively robust across sensitivity analyses. The study suggested that UAs concentration in postmenopausal women was primarily determined by dietary factors, with fish consumption showing the strongest direct association. However, the majority of variation in UAs concentration in this study population is still unexplained.
The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a well-known phenomenon. In this study we used the extensive registration of all Danish citizens to describe the magnitude of HWE among all Danish electricians and evaluated strategies for minimizing HWE bias of the association between occupation and mortality.
All Danish male citizens aged 26-56 years in the period 1984-1992 were followed for three years in several registers. We evaluated HWE bias among electricians because they were unexposed to detrimental occupational exposures. We compared electricians to three reference groups (general population, construction industry and carpenters/brick layers) and utilized analytical methods for minimizing HWE bias (lag time analyses, age-stratified analyses, marginal structural model and restriction to employed, newly employed or long-term workers).
The mortality rate was higher among electricians, who the year following active employment received incapacity benefits or were on long-term sick leave. Electricians receiving incapacity benefits, on long-term sick leave, unemployed, or with increased comorbidity index had lower odds of re-employment. Electricians had lower mortality rate (rate ratio,0.60;95%CI,0.52-0.69) compared to the general population, while electricians leaving employment had increased mortality (1.90;1.50-2.40). Adjusting for several social events slightly attenuated the estimates, while the marginal structural model did not minimize bias. Electricians had the same mortality as the construction industry and carpenters/brick layers. Mortality was comparable to the general population after three or more years of lag time.
In this nationwide study, employment as electricians had marked effect on mortality. Appropriate reference selection and lag time analyses minimized the HWE bias.
Obesity is hypothesized to involve immunoinflammatory alterations, and the condition has been related to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. The present study analyzed the association between overweight/obesity and periodontitis assessed as clinical attachment loss (AL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) in a cross-sectional design.
Participants included 878 women and 719 men aged 20 to 95 years (participation rate 54%) who underwent an oral examination, including full-mouth recording of clinical AL and BOP. Overweight and obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI) using the World Health Organization criteria. BMI was related to clinical AL (defined as mean > or =3 mm) and BOP (defined as > or =25%) by multivariable logistic regression in the total population and in subjects stratified by gender and smoking habits.
Obese participants had a lower odds ratio (OR) for clinical AL compared to participants with normal weight (OR: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36 to 0.99). The same tendency was observed in subjects stratified by smoking habit. Obese never-smokers had a lower OR for clinical AL compared to never-smoking participants with normal weight (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.91). Overweight participants had a higher OR for BOP compared to subjects with normal weight (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.78). In addition, overweight never-smokers had a higher OR for BOP compared to normal weight never-smokers (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.59).
BMI may be inversely associated with clinical AL but positively related to BOP.