To analyse the acquisition cost of dispensed prescription drugs for individuals with multiple medications in a national population.
We collected and analysed individual based data regarding the acquisition cost of dispensed prescription drugs for all individuals with five or more dispensed drugs (DP=5) in Sweden 2006 (2.2 million).
Individuals with DP=5 (24.5% of the population) accounted for 78.8% of the total acquisition cost, and individuals with DP=10 (8.6% of the population) and DP=15 (3.0% of the population) accounted for 46.3% and 23.2%, respectively. The average acquisition cost per defined daily doses (DDD) generally decreased with increasing age. The highest average cost per DDD was observed for individuals with DP=10. The acquisition cost for women with DP=5 represented 56.0% of the total acquisition cost. Men with DP=5 represented 44.0% of the total acquisition cost.
In an entire national population, individuals with multiple medication accounted for four fifths of the total acquisition cost of dispensed drugs. Actions to reduce the number of prescription drugs for the group of patients with a number of different drugs may also result in a substantial reduction of the total acquisition cost.
OBJECTIVE. Severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) can vary from a mild to a fulminant disease with high morbidity and mortality. Cost analysis has, however, hitherto been sparse. The aim of this study was to calculate the cost of acute pancreatitis, both including hospital costs and costs due to loss of production. MATERIAL AND METHODS. All adult patients treated at Skane University Hospital, Lund, during 2009-2010, were included. A severity grading was conducted and cost analysis was performed on an individual basis. RESULTS. Two hundred and fifty-two patients with altogether 307 admissions were identified. Mean age was 60 ± 19 years, and 121 patients (48%) were men. Severe AP (SAP) was diagnosed in 38 patients (12%). Thirteen patients (5%) died. Acute biliary pancreatitis was more costly than alcohol induced AP (p
To evaluate long-run cost-effectiveness in a Swedish setting for liraglutide compared with sulphonylureas (glimepiride) or sitagliptin, all as add-on to metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with metformin in monotherapy.
The IHE Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes was used to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes from a societal perspective. Model input data were obtained from two clinical trials, the Swedish National Diabetes Register and the literature. Cost data reflected year 2013 price level. The robustness of results was checked with one-way-sensitivity analysis and probability sensitivity analysis.
The cost per QALY gained for liraglutide (1.2 mg) compared to SU (glimepiride 4 mg), both as add-on to metformin, ranged from SEK 226,000 to SEK 255,000 in analyzed patient cohorts. The cost per QALY for liraglutide (1.2 mg) vs sitagliptin (100 mg) as second-line treatment was lower, ranging from SEK 149,000 to SEK 161,000. Costs of preventive treatment were driving costs, but there was also a cost offset from reduced costs of complications of ~ 20%. Notable cost differences were found for nephropathy, stroke, and heart failure. The predicted life expectancy with liraglutide increased the cost of net consumption for liraglutide.
The analysis was an ex-ante analysis using model input data from clinical trials which may not reflect effectiveness in real-world clinical practice in broader patient populations. This limitation was explored in the sensitivity analysis. The lack of specific data on loss of production due to diabetes complications implied that these costs may be under-estimated.
Treatment strategies with liraglutide 1.2 mg improved the expected quality-of-life and increased costs when compared to SU and to sitagliptin for second-line add-on treatments. The cost per QALY for liraglutide was in the range considered medium by Swedish authorities.
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients who have progressed following treatment with both bortezomib and lenalidomide have a poor prognosis. In this late stage, other effective alternatives are limited, and patients in Sweden are often left with best supportive care. Pomalidomide is a new anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory drug for the treatment of MM. Our objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of pomalidomide as an add-on to best supportive care in patients with relapsed and refractory MM in Sweden.
We developed a health-economic discrete event simulation model of a patient's course through stable disease and progressive disease, until death. It estimates life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a societal perspective. Effectiveness data and utilities were taken from the MM-003 trial comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone with high-dose dexamethasone (HIDEX). Cost data were taken from official Swedish price lists, government sources and literature.
The model estimates that, if a patient is treated with HIDEX, life expectancy is 1.12 years and the total cost is SEK 179 976 (€19?100), mainly indirect costs. With pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone, life expectancy is 2.33 years, with a total cost of SEK 767 064 (€81?500), mainly in drug and indirect costs. Compared to HIDEX, pomalidomide treatment gives a QALY gain of 0.7351 and an incremental cost of SEK 587 088 (€62?400) consisting of increased drug costs (59%), incremental indirect costs (33%) and other healthcare costs (8%). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is SEK 798 613 (€84?900) per QALY gained.
In a model of late-stage MM patients with a poor prognosis in the Swedish setting, pomalidomide is associated with a relatively high incremental cost per QALY gained. This model was accepted by the national Swedish reimbursement authority TLV, and pomalidomide was granted reimbursement in Sweden.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the excess cost of stroke in Sweden and the potential costs that could be avoided by preventing first-ever strokes. METHODS: We adopted the incidence approach for estimating the present value of both direct and indirect costs. Data on mortality, stroke recurrence, and inpatient care were estimated from a national register of patient data with a four-year follow-up period. To estimate costs for social services, we used survey data on living conditions before stroke onset and at three and at twenty-four months. Costs for outpatient visits, rehabilitation, drugs, and production losses due to premature death and early retirement were estimated on the basis of both published and nonpublished sources. Lifetime costs were based on life tables adjusted for excess mortality of stroke, and costs in year 4 were extrapolated to subsequent years. RESULTS: The present value direct cost for an average stroke patient is SEK513,800 (USdollars 56,024 or Euro60,825). The corresponding indirect cost is SEK125,110 (USdollars13,640 or Euro14,810). Almost 45 percent of the direct costs were attributable to social services. Women had higher costs than men, and costs for survivors increased with age due to social services. CONCLUSIONS: With an incidence of 213 first-ever strokes per 100,000 individuals, the total excess direct and indirect cost of stroke would be SEK12.3 billion (approximately US$1.3 billion or Euro1.5 billion). Hence, there are large potential cost offsets both in the health-care sector and in the social service sector if the incidence of first-ever stroke could be reduced.
An estimate of the average cost of treatment (COT) was assessed for 53 patients with pancreatic cancer treated between 1997 and 1999 in four hospitals in southern Sweden. Average COT was estimated to Euro18 947, 55% of which was attributable to hospitalization (including surgical procedures), 20% to long-term care and 11% to chemotherapy. Diagnostics and radiotherapy accounted for 9% and 4%, respectively. Median survival was 5.6 months (mean 6.3 months). Treatment costs per patient were negatively correlated with age but were higher for patients receiving chemo/radiotherapy and surgical treatment than for patients receiving only standard supportive care. Disease stage and type of hospital (university versus regional/local hospitals) were not significant predictors of COT per se. Assuming that our estimate of the average cost is representative for Sweden, the total healthcare cost for pancreatic cancer was Euro16 million (dollar14 million), i.e about 2-3% of the COT for all cancer diseases in Sweden. In the USA the cost of pancreatic cancer accounted for the same proportion. However, our estimated cost per patient was about half the amount of the US estimate. The distribution of costs between the different types of treatment services did not differ greatly between Sweden and the USA.
The aim of this study was to estimate direct and indirect excess costs attributable to stroke in Sweden in 2009 and to compare these with similar estimates from 1997.
Data on first-ever stoke admissions in the first half of 2009 from the Swedish national stroke register (RS) were used for cost calculations and compared with results from 1997 also using RS data. A societal perspective was taken including the acute and follow-up phase, rehabilitation, stroke re-admissions, drugs, home- and residential care services for activities of daily life (ADL) support, and indirect costs for premature death and productivity losses (2009 prices). Survival was extrapolated to estimate the lifetime present value cost of stroke.
The societal lifetime present value cost for stroke in 2009 was €68,800 per patient (ADL support: 59 percent; productivity losses: 21 percent). Women had higher costs than men in all age groups as a result from greater need for ADL support. Patients treated at a stroke unit indicated low incremental cost per life-year gained compared with those who had not. The total lifetime cost increased between 1997 and 2009. Hospitalization costs per patient were stable, while long-term costs for home- and residential care services increased.
Changes in patient characteristics, longer expected survival, and possibly in the Swedish stroke care, have led to higher annual and lifetime costs per patient in 2009 compared with 1997. A comprehensive national stroke care performance register like RS may be suitable for health economic assessments.
Sweden is a high endemic region for multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurologic disorder characterized by repeated inflammatory episodes affecting the CNS. The disease has its peak age of onset at approximately 30 years and affects women twice as often as men. The young age of onset makes MS one of the major causes of reduced capacity to work due to neurologic disease in Western society. Natalizumab (Tysabri®) is among the new generation of biologic drugs for the treatment of MS. Clinical studies have demonstrated that natalizumab is an effective treatment for preventing relapses and inflammatory activity.
The aim of the study was to estimate the monetary value of treatment with natalizumab on the ability to work in patients with MS in Sweden, based on a direct measurement of weekly hours worked before and after 1 year of treatment with natalizumab.
A sample of patients, consisting of all patients who had started treatment with natalizumab during the period June 2007-May 2008, was identified through the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register (SMSreg). Data about sex, age, disease severity, and disease duration were collected from the register. Data about type of work and work capacity (number of hours worked per week) were collected retrospectively through a postal questionnaire. The average hours worked per week was estimated at baseline (2 weeks before treatment started) and at follow-up (50 weeks after treatment started), and the change was assigned an economic value using the human capital approach.
This study showed that after 50 weeks of treatment with natalizumab, people with MS increased their productivity by 3.3 hours per week on average (p?