Lifetime respiratory function after extremely preterm birth (gestational age=28 wk or birth weight=1,000 g) is unknown.
To compare changes from 18-25 years of age in respiratory health, lung function, and airway responsiveness in young adults born extremely prematurely to that of term-born control subjects.
Comprehensive lung function investigations and interviews were conducted in a population-based sample of 25-year-old subjects born extremely prematurely in western Norway in 1982-1985, and in matched term-born control subjects. Comparison was made to similar data collected at 18 years of age.
At 25 years of age, 46/51 (90%) eligible subjects born extremely prematurely and 39/46 (85%) control subjects participated. z-Scores for FEV1, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced in subjects born extremely prematurely by 1.02, 1.26, and 0.88, respectively, and airway resistance (kPa/L/s) was increased (0.23 versus 0.18). Residual volume to total lung capacity increased with severity of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Responsiveness to methacholine (dose-response slope; 3.16 versus 0.85) and bronchial lability index (7.5 versus 4.8%) were increased in subjects born extremely prematurely. Lung function changes from 18 to 25 years and respiratory symptoms were similar in the prematurely born and term-born groups.
Lung function in early adult life was in the normal range in the majority of subjects born extremely prematurely, but methacholine responsiveness was more pronounced than in term-born young adults, suggesting a need for ongoing pulmonary monitoring in this population.
Asthma and atopic dermatitis are both regarded as atopic diseases. Being born too early is associated with increased risk of asthma, but some studies have indicated that the opposite might be true for atopic dermatitis. We explored in more detail the associations between preterm birth, asthma, and atopic dermatitis.
We analyzed data from Norwegian registries with prospectively collected data. All live births in Norway from 1967 through 2001 were followed through 2005 by linking the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the National Insurance Scheme and to Statistics Norway. Only severe asthma and atopic dermatitis were registered in the National Insurance Scheme.
Of a total of 1,760,821 children, we identified 9,349 cases (0.5%) with severe asthma and 6,930 cases (0.4%) with severe atopic dermatitis. Compared with children born at term (37-41 wk gestation), preterm birth was associated with increased odds for severe asthma (odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.8) for 32-36 wk gestation and OR 3.6 (95% CI: 3.1-4.2) for 23-31 wk) and decreased odds for severe atopic dermatitis (OR 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.0) for 32-36 wk gestation and OR 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5-1.0) for 23-31 wk). Adjustment for perinatal and socio-demographic factors weakened the association between gestational age and severe asthma, while slightly strengthening the association between gestational age and severe atopic dermatitis.
Preterm birth was associated with increased risk of severe asthma and decreased risk of severe atopic dermatitis.
Maternal asthma has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the influence of other atopic diseases on pregnancy outcomes. We assessed how various maternal atopic diseases might affect preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death.
By linking Norwegian national registries, we acquired information on maternal health, socio-demographic factors, pregnancy, birth, and neonatal outcome on all births in Norway from 1967 to 2003.
A total of 1?974?226 births were included. Of these, 1.8% had a record of maternal asthma, 3.4% of maternal atopic dermatitis, and 0.4% of maternal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Overall rates of preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death were 6.0%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. After adjustments for possible confounders, maternal asthma was associated with increased risk of preterm birth (relative risk (RR), 1.15, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10, 1.21]). In contrast, maternal atopic dermatitis was associated with decreased risk of preterm birth (RR 0.90, [95% CI 0.86, 0.93]), stillbirth (RR 0.70, [95% CI 0.62, 0.79]), and neonatal death (RR 0.76, [95% CI 0.65, 0.90]). Similarly, maternal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with decreased risk of preterm birth (RR 0.84, [95% CI 0.76, 0.94]) and stillbirth (RR 0.40, [95% CI 0.25, 0.66]).
We confirmed the previously reported association of maternal asthma with increased risk for preterm birth. Unexpectedly, maternal atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were associated with decreased risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. Mechanisms for these protective associations are unclear, and our findings require confirmation in further studies.
Although preterm delivery is a well-established risk factor for cerebral palsy (CP), preterm deliveries contribute only a minority of affected infants. There is little information on the relation of CP risk to gestational age in the term range, where most CP occurs.
To determine whether timing of birth in the term and postterm period is associated with risk of CP.
Population-based follow-up study using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify 1,682,441 singleton children born in the years 1967-2001 with a gestational age of 37 through 44 weeks and no congenital anomalies. The cohort was followed up through 2005 by linkage to other national registries.
Absolute and relative risk of CP for children surviving to at least 4 years of age.
Of the cohort of term and postterm children, 1938 were registered with CP in the National Insurance Scheme. Infants born at 40 weeks had the lowest risk of CP, with a prevalence of 0.99/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.08). Risk for CP was higher with earlier or later delivery, with a prevalence at 37 weeks of 1.91/1000 (95% CI, 1.58-2.25) and a relative risk (RR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6-2.4), a prevalence at 38 weeks of 1.25/1000 (95% CI, 1.07-1.42) and an RR of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), a prevalence at 42 weeks of 1.36/1000 (95% CI, 1.19-1.53) and an RR of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2-1.6), and a prevalence after 42 weeks of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.15-1.72) and an RR of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). These associations were even stronger in a subset with gestational age based on ultrasound measurements: at 37 weeks the prevalence was 1.17/1000 (95% CI, 0.30-2.04) and the relative risk was 3.7 (95% CI, 1.5-9.1). At 42 weeks the prevalence was 0.85/1000 (95% CI, 0.33-1.38) and the relative risk was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Adjustment for infant sex, maternal age, and various socioeconomic measures had little effect.
Compared with delivery at 40 weeks' gestation, delivery at 37 or 38 weeks or at 42 weeks or later was associated with an increased risk of CP.
Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP) or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW) nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.
Fifty-seven (93%) of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA)
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jan;161(1):309-2910619836
OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes, in terms of perinatal and early death, need for treatment, and morbidity at the time of discharge home, among extremely preterm infants. DESIGN: A prospective observational study of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of 22 to 27 completed weeks or a birth weight of 500 to 999 g who were born in Norway in 1999 and 2000. RESULTS: Of 636 births, 174 infants (27%) were stillborn or died in the delivery room, 86 (14%) died in the NICU, and 376 (59%) were discharged from the hospital. The risk of being registered as stillborn or not being resuscitated increased with decreasing GA below 25 weeks. The survival rates for all births and for infants admitted to a NICU were, respectively, 0% for 27 weeks. For the survivors, days of mechanical ventilation decreased from a median of 37 days to 3 days and the proportion in need of oxygen at 36 weeks' postconceptional age decreased from 67% to 26% at 23 and 27 weeks' GA, respectively. At 40 weeks' postconceptional age, the respective figures were 11% and 6%. The proportion with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment decreased from 33% for GA of 23 weeks to 0% for >25 weeks. Periventricular hemorrhage of more than grade 2 occurred for 6% of the survivors and significant periventricular leukomalacia occurred for 5%, with no significant association with GA. The proportion of survivors without severe neurosensory or pulmonary morbidity increased from 44% for 23 weeks' to 86% for 27 weeks' GA. Apart from ROP, the morbidity rate was not associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate was high and the morbidity rate at discharge home was low in the present study, compared with previous population-based studies. With the exception of ROP, the morbidity rates among the survivors were not higher at the lowest GAs, possibly because withholding treatment was considered more acceptable for the most immature infants. The need for intensive care increased markedly for survivors with the lowest GAs.
To investigate whether absent or reversed end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (AREDF) is associated with neonatal mortality, morbidity or long-term neurocognitive outcome in extremely preterm infants exposed to preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction.
Prenatal Doppler data were retrospectively collected for liveborn infants with gestational age (GA)
BACKGROUND: The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL) is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age