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Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and associations with cardiometabolic risk in Inuit, Africans and Europeans: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304748
Source
BMJ Open. 2020 09 14; 10(9):e038071
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-14-2020
Author
Pernille Falberg Rønn
Gregers Stig Andersen
Torsten Lauritzen
Dirk Lund Christensen
Mette Aadahl
Bendix Carstensen
Niels Grarup
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark pernille.falberg.roenn@regionh.dk.
Source
BMJ Open. 2020 09 14; 10(9):e038071
Date
09-14-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Abdominal fat has been identified as a risk marker of cardiometabolic disease independent of overall adiposity. However, it is not clear whether there are ethnic disparities in this risk. We investigated the associations of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with cardiometabolic risk factors in three ethnic diverse populations of Inuit, Africans and Europeans.
Cross-sectional pooled study.
Greenland, Kenya and Denmark.
A total of 5113 participants (2933 Inuit, 1397 Africans and 783 Europeans) from three studies in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark were included. Measurements included abdominal fat distribution assessed by ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, hepatic insulin resistance, blood pressure and lipids. The associations were analysed using multiple linear regressions.
Across ethnic group and gender, an increase in VAT of 1 SD was associated with higher levels of hepatic insulin resistance (ranging from 14% to 28%), triglycerides (8% to 16%) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, -1.0 to -0.05 mmol/L) independent of body mass index. VAT showed positive associations with most of the other cardiometabolic risk factors in Inuit and Europeans, but not in Africans. In contrast, SAT was mainly associated with the outcomes in Inuit and Africans. Of notice was that higher SAT was associated with higher HDL-C in African men (0.11?mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.18) and with lower HDL-C in Inuit (-0.07?mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.12 to -0.02), but not in European men (-0.02?mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.05). Generally weaker associations were observed for women. Furthermore, the absolute levels of several of the cardiometabolic outcomes differed between the ethnic groups.
VAT and SAT were associated with several of the cardiometabolic risk factors beyond overall adiposity. Some of these associations were specific to ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity plays a role in the pathway from abdominal fat to selected cardiometabolic risk factors.
PubMed ID
32928857 View in PubMed
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Adverse social factors predict early ageing in middle-aged men and women: the Ebeltoft Health Study, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71062
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Peter M Nilsson
Marianne Engberg
Jan-Ake Nilsson
Bo Karlsmose
Torsten Lauritzen
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Peter.Nilsson@medforsk.mas.lu.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):255-60
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aging, Premature - epidemiology - etiology
Biological Markers
Denmark - epidemiology
Education
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Occupations
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Rural Population
Social Class
Abstract
AIMS: This study examined whether adverse social factors are associated with an increased rate of biological ageing in middle-aged subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated five markers of biological ageing in 690 subjects followed for five years in Ebeltoft, Denmark. Mean age at baseline was 40 years (range 30-50 years). These markers included repeated measures of pulse pressure, lung function, hearing, physical work capacity and a cardiovascular risk score. A zeta-score was calculated based on a factor analysis of the five markers used. The relative biological age was finally calculated in relation to chronological age in subgroups of different social class (occupation, educational level) and marital status, at baseline and after follow-up. RESULTS: Men and women from a higher social class appeared to be biologically younger than corresponding subjects from a lower social class (p
PubMed ID
15099030 View in PubMed
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All-cause mortality and pharmacological treatment intensity following a high risk screening program for diabetes. A 6.6 year follow-up of the ADDITION study, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124294
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2012 Oct;6(3):193-200
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Torsten Lauritzen
Annelli Sandbaek
Anders Helles Carlsen
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, Department of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark. tl@alm.au.dk
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2012 Oct;6(3):193-200
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Glucose - drug effects - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Comorbidity
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - diagnosis - drug therapy - mortality
Dyslipidemias - diagnosis - drug therapy - mortality
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - drug therapy - mortality
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Hypolipidemic Agents - therapeutic use
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To study all-cause mortality and pharmacological treatment intensity in relation to baseline glucose metabolism and HbA1c following high risk screening for diabetes in primary care.
Persons aged 40-69 years (N=163,185) received mailed diabetes risk questionnaires. 20,916 persons without diabetes but with high risk of diabetes were stratified by glucose metabolism (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), dysglycemia (IFG or IGT) or diabetes) and by HbA1c at screening (
Notes
Comment In: Prim Care Diabetes. 2012 Dec;6(4):341-222917774
PubMed ID
22595031 View in PubMed
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Association of self-perceived body image with body mass index and type 2 diabetes-The ADDITION-PRO study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268740
Source
Prev Med. 2015 Jun;75:64-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Mette Bjerggaard
Annelotte Philipsen
Marit E Jørgensen
Morten Charles
Daniel R Witte
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Kristine Færch
Source
Prev Med. 2015 Jun;75:64-9
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body Image - psychology
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - prevention & control - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Waist Circumference
Weight Loss
Abstract
Weight loss is important for prevention of type 2 diabetes and an accurate self-perceived body image can promote weight reduction. We evaluated the association of self-perceived body image with body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes.
Data from the Danish ADDITION-PRO cohort study (2009-2011) were used. A total of 2082 men and women attended a health examination including assessment of BMI, waist circumference, the Stunkard scale of self-perceived obesity and an oral glucose tolerance test for assessment of diabetes risk.
Mean (SD) age was 66.2 (6.9) years and 24% were obese (BMI =30kg/m(2)). However, only 7% of obese men and 11% of obese women perceived themselves as obese. Among obese women, for a given level of BMI and waist circumference, one unit higher self-perceived body image was associated with 52% (95% CI: 14-73) lower risk of having type 2 diabetes and 45% (95% CI: 12-65) lower risk of having pre-diabetes. Overweight, but not obese, men had a 35% (95% CI: 36-56) lower risk of type 2 diabetes per unit increase in body image.
Obese individuals seem to underestimate their body shape. However, having a realistic body image (higher self-perceived obesity) is independently associated with lower diabetes risk. Self-perceived body image might serve as a valuable tool for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.
PubMed ID
25838208 View in PubMed
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Bioinformatics-driven identification and examination of candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136831
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Karina Banasik
Johanne M Justesen
Malene Hornbak
Nikolaj T Krarup
Anette P Gjesing
Camilla H Sandholt
Thomas S Jensen
Niels Grarup
Asa Andersson
Torben Jørgensen
Daniel R Witte
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Bernard Thorens
Søren Brunak
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark. kabs@hagedorn.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Computational Biology - methods
Data Mining
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Fatty Liver - genetics
Humans
Metabolic Syndrome X - genetics
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Protein Binding
Quantitative Trait Loci
Abstract
Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes.
By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D), central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS).
273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
21339799 View in PubMed
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[Can systematic general health screening and patient-physician health discussions improve the cardiovascular profile of the population? A randomized controlled trial in general practice with a 5-year follow-up]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69052
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Jun 17;164(25):3354-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-17-2002
Author
Marianne Engberg
Bo Christensen
Bo Karlsmose
Jørgen Lous
Torsten Lauritzen
Author Affiliation
Institut for Almen Medicin, Aarhus Universitet, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000 Arhus C. me@alm.au.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Jun 17;164(25):3354-60
Date
Jun-17-2002
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Family Practice - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Physician-Patient Relations
Questionnaires
Referral and Consultation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the impact of general health screenings and discussions with general practitioners on the cardiovascular risk profile of the population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based, randomised, controlled, 5-year follow-up trial conducted in a primary care setting. In total 2000 randomly selected men and women, aged 30-50 years, from family practices in the district of Ebeltoft, Denmark. Of these persons, 1507 (75.4%) agreed to participate, and were randomised into: (1) a control group who did not receive health screenings; (2) an intervention group that received two health screenings; or (3) an intervention group that received both the two screenings and a 45-minute follow-up consultation annually with their general practitioner. All were followed up after 5 years by questionnaires and health screenings. The outcome measures were: cardiovascular risk score (CRS), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum cholesterol, carbon monoxide in expiratory air, and use of tobacco. RESULTS: After 5 years, the CRS, BMI, and serum cholesterol levels were lower in the intervention groups, as compared with the control group. The improved outcome was greater in the baseline risk groups. The number of persons with elevated CRS in the intervention groups was about half the number of persons with elevated CRS in the control group. The difference was not a result of medication use. There was no difference between the group that received consultations after the screenings and the group that had health screenings alone. DISCUSSION: Systematic health screenings reduce the cardiovascular risk score in a middle-aged population. After 5 years of follow-up, the number of persons at elevated cardiovascular risk was about half the expected. The impact of intervention is higher in at-risk individuals. Planned consultations about health did not appear to improve the cardiovascular profile of the study population.
Notes
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Sep 2;164(36):4199-200; author reply 4200-112362842
PubMed ID
12107951 View in PubMed
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Change in cardiovascular risk factors following early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266383
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2014 Apr;64(621):e208-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
James A Black
Stephen J Sharp
Nicholas J Wareham
Annelli Sandbæk
Guy E H M Rutten
Torsten Lauritzen
Kamlesh Khunti
Melanie J Davies
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Simon J Griffin
Rebecca K Simmons
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2014 Apr;64(621):e208-16
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - prevention & control
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cluster analysis
Cohort Studies
Creatinine - blood
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis - drug therapy
Early Diagnosis
England
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Serum Albumin - metabolism
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
There is little evidence to inform the targeted treatment of individuals found early in the diabetes disease trajectory.
To describe cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles and treatment of individual CVD risk factors by modelled CVD risk at diagnosis; changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors in the 5 years following diagnosis; and how these are patterned by socioeconomic status.
Cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial (ADDITION-Europe) in general practices in Denmark, England, and the Netherlands.
A total of 2418 individuals with screen-detected diabetes were divided into quartiles of modelled 10-year CVD risk at diagnosis. Changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors were assessed at 5 years.
The largest reductions in risk factors and modelled CVD risk were seen in participants who were in the highest quartile of modelled risk at baseline, suggesting that treatment was offered appropriately. Participants in the lowest quartile of risk at baseline had very similar levels of modelled CVD risk at 5 years and showed the least variation in change in modelled risk. No association was found between socioeconomic status and changes in CVD risk factors, suggesting that treatment was equitable.
Diabetes management requires setting of individualised attainable targets. This analysis provides a reference point for patients, clinicians, and policymakers when considering goals for changes in risk factors early in the course of the disease that account for the diverse cardiometabolic profile present in individuals who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24686885 View in PubMed
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Cholesterol reduction following health screening in general practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71434
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2002 Dec;20(4):219-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Helle Kanstrup
Jens Refsgaard
Marianne Engberg
Jens Flensted Lassen
Mogens Lytken Larsen
Torsten Lauritzen
Author Affiliation
Department of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark. H.Kanstrup@dadlnet.dk
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2002 Dec;20(4):219-23
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cholesterol - blood
Counseling - utilization
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Practice - organization & administration
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Intervention Studies
Male
Mass Screening - utilization
Middle Aged
Office Visits
Program Evaluation
Random Allocation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in plasma cholesterol following health screening and health discussions in general practice. DESIGN: Randomised prospective population-based study conducted over a period of 5 years. SETTING: Primary care, all general practitioners (GPs) in a well-defined area. SUBJECTS: A random sample of inhabitants aged 30-49 years in January 1991, registered with a local GP was invited to participate. The participants (1507 persons, or 75.4% of the 2000 invited) were randomly allocated to two intervention groups and a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma cholesterol, percentage of subjects with plasma cholesterol higher than 7 mmol/l. RESULTS: After 5 years of intervention, plasma cholesterol in the whole population was significantly lower in the intervention groups compared to the control group. The decrease was most pronounced (0.5 mmol/l) in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The percentage of high-risk individuals with a cholesterol level higher than 7 mmol/l was significantly lower in the intervention groups compared to the control group (9.8% vs 6.2%, p = 0.04), corresponding to a 37% reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that the health checks had a measurable impact on plasma cholesterol levels, the most pronounced effect is seen among individuals at high cardiovascular risk.
PubMed ID
12564573 View in PubMed
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A combined analysis of 48 type 2 diabetes genetic risk variants shows no discriminative value to predict time to first prescription of a glucose lowering drug in Danish patients with screen detected type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262700
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104837
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Malene Hornbak
Kristine Højgaard Allin
Majken Linnemann Jensen
Cathrine Juel Lau
Daniel Witte
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Ã?sa Andersson
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104837
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy - epidemiology - genetics - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Insulin-Secreting Cells - metabolism - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes.
We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001-2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to Ã?-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug.
The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.]?=?1.39 [1.09-1.77], p?=?0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.]?=?0.96 [0.93-0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01-1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36-.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11-1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17-0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group.
Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early pharmacological intervention in type 2 diabetes. However, known common type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants do not appear to significantly affect disease progression.
Notes
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