According to previous studies, abstinence from alcohol increases the risk of disability retirement (DR). We studied whether former alcohol users' poor mental or physical health might have contributed to this result.
Prospective population-based study of 3621 occupationally active Finns aged 30-55 years at baseline. Disability pension data for 2000-2011 was retrieved from national pension records. We examined medically certified disability retirement due to all causes and due to mental disorders among lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, those with an alcohol use disorder irrespective of consumption and current users, further classified according to weekly intake of alcohol. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated in a clinical examination and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cox regression was used.
Neither lifelong abstinence nor alcohol consumption, even at hazardous levels, without alcohol use disorder was associated with disability retirement. Compared with light drinkers, former drinkers' hazard ratio for DR due to mental disorders was 2.67 (95% CI 1.39-5.13), allowing for somatic and mental morbidity, physical and psychosocial workload, health behaviour and socio-demographic factors. The respective hazard ratio of DR due to all causes for those with alcohol use disorder was 2.17 (1.49-3.16) and of DR due to mental disorders 4.04 (2.02 to 8.06).
Lifelong abstinence did not predict disability retirement. Former drinkers and people with alcohol use disorders were at a multi-fold risk of work disability due to mental disorders compared with light drinkers, thus it is important to support their work ability.
We aim to compare four different weighting methods to adjust for non-response in a survey on drinking habits and to examine whether the problem of under-coverage of survey estimates of alcohol use could be remedied by these methods in comparison to sales statistics.
The data from a general population survey of Finns aged 15-79 years in 2016 ( n=2285, response rate 60%) were used. Outcome measures were the annual volume of drinking and prevalence of hazardous drinking. A wide range of sociodemographic and regional variables from registers were available to model the non-response. Response propensities were modelled using logistic regression and random forest models to derive two sets of refined weights in addition to design weights and basic post-stratification weights.
Estimated annual consumption changed from 2.43 litres of 100% alcohol using design weights to 2.36-2.44 when using the other three weights and the estimated prevalence of hazardous drinkers changed from 11.4% to 11.4-11.8%, correspondingly. The use of weights derived by the random forest method generally provided smaller estimates than use of the logistic regression-based weights.
The use of complex non-response weights derived from the logistic regression model or random forest are not likely to provide much added value over more simple weights in surveys on alcohol use. Surveys may not catch heavy drinkers and therefore are prone for under-reporting of alcohol use at the population level. Also, factors other than sociodemographic characteristics are likely to influence participation decisions.
A common objective of epidemiological surveys is to provide population-level estimates of health indicators. Survey results tend to be biased under selective non-participation. One approach to bias reduction is to collect information about non-participants by contacting them again and asking them to fill in a questionnaire. This information is called re-contact data, and it allows to adjust the estimates for non-participation.
We analyse data from the FINRISK 2012 survey, where re-contact data were collected. We assume that the respondents of the re-contact survey are similar to the remaining non-participants with respect to the health given their available background information. Validity of this assumption is evaluated based on the hospitalisation data obtained through record linkage of survey data to the administrative registers. Using this assumption and multiple imputation, we estimate the prevalences of daily smoking and heavy alcohol consumption and compare them to estimates obtained with a commonly used assumption that the participants represent the entire target group.
When adjusting for non-participation using re-contact data, higher prevalence estimates were observed compared to prevalence estimates based on participants only. Among men, the smoking prevalence estimate was 28.5% (23.2% for participants) and heavy alcohol consumption prevalence was 9.4% (6.8% for participants). Among women, smoking prevalence was 19% (16.5% for participants) and heavy alcohol consumption was 4.8% (3% for participants).
The utilisation of re-contact data is a useful method to adjust for non-participation bias on population estimates in epidemiological surveys.
Epidemiological data on alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium (alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome, AIPS) are scarce.
To investigate the epidemiology of AIPS, the risk factors for developing AIPS among people with alcohol dependence, and mortality associated with alcohol dependence with or without AIPS, in a sample drawn from the general population of Finland.
A general population sample of 8028 persons were interviewed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and screened for psychotic disorders using multiple sources. Best-estimate diagnoses of psychotic disorders were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and case notes. Data on hospital reatments and deaths were collected from national registers.
The lifetime prevalence was 0.5% for AIPS and was highest (1.8%) among men of working age. Younger age at onset of alcohol dependence, low socioeconomic status, father's mental health or alcohol problems and multiple hospital treatments were associated with increased risk of AIPS. Participants with a history of AIPS had considerable medical comorbidity, and 37% of them died during the 8-year follow-up.
Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder is a severe mental disorder with poor outcome.
Previous studies have not distinguished between different alcohol-use histories, which could have contributed to the current inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between alcohol use and subsequent sickness absence. We thus examined alcohol use and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence in groups with different levels of alcohol use, as well as in lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and people with clinical alcohol use disorders.
The data of the population-based Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901) of 3666 Finns aged 30-55 were linked with national registers on medically certified sickness absences lasting for >?10 working days (long-term) for all causes (2000?-?2010) and for mental or musculoskeletal disorders (2004-2010), as well as with registers on pensions and death (2000-2010). Alcohol use was assessed by questionnaire. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated at baseline in a clinical examination, and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Cox regression analyses were conducted with censoring for death and retirement from work.
During an average 10-year follow-up, 56.0% of the participants had at least one long-term sickness absence period. Compared with light drinkers, those having an alcohol use disorder had increased risk of all-cause sickness absence (HR?=?1.27; 95% CI?=?1.04?-?1.54) and sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR?=?2.16; 95% CI?=?1.39?-?3.35), when somatic and mental disorders as well as demographic, lifestyle-related and occupational factors at baseline were accounted for. Lifelong abstainers did not differ from light drinkers. Also high-volume drinking (HR?=?1.52; 95% CI 1.03?-?2.25) and former drinking (HR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=?1.15?-?2.15) were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. Alcohol use was not predictive of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders.
These results highlight the need to distinguish between former drinking and lifelong abstinence, as only former drinking was associated with sickness absence. Alcohol use disorder and high-volume drinking were strongly predictive of sickness absence due to mental disorders. Identifying people with excessive alcohol use e.g. in occupational health care, and mapping and supporting their mental health may help in preventing sickness absences.
Cites: Drug Alcohol Rev. 2016 Mar;35(2):158-69 PMID 26331574
The association between anthropometric measures and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is different in Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants compared with the general population in Finland: a cross-sectional population-based study.
Persons of African and Middle-Eastern origin living in European countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, accompanied by high prevalence of obesity among women but not always among men. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the association between anthropometric measures and glucose levels measured with glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose among persons of migrant origin in Finland.
Cross-sectional population-based data of the 30-64?year-old participants in the health examination of the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study was used, selecting persons without diabetes (Russian origin n =?293, Somali origin n =?184, Kurdish origin n =?275). The reference group were non-diabetic participants in the Health 2011 Survey (n =?653), representative of the general Finnish population. Anthropometric measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, available for Maamu Study participants only).
Depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-18% of variation in HbA1c among persons of Russian origin, 5-10% among persons of Somali origin, 1-3% among persons of Kurdish origin and 11-13% among the general population. Also depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-19% of variation in fasting blood glucose among persons of Russian origin, 15-20% among persons of Somali origin, 13-17% among persons of Kurdish origin and 16-17% among the general population. With exception for BMI, strength of the association between continuous anthropometric measures and HbA1c was significantly lower among persons of Kurdish origin compared with the general Finnish population (p =?0.044 for WC and p =?0.040 for WHtR).
A low degree of association between anthropometric measures and HbA1c was observed among persons of Kurdish origin. Findings of this study suggest caution is warranted when using HbA1c as a screening tool for glucose impairment among persons without diabetes in populations of diverse origin.
Mortality among schizophrenia patients is substantially higher than in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a nationwide cohort of suicidal schizophrenic individuals, how the risks of suicide, severe suicide attempts and death are associated with usage of antidepressant or antipsychotic treatment.
The study population included all individuals in Finland who were hospitalised with a diagnosis of attempted suicide between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2003, who also had at least one hospitalisation due to schizophrenia diagnosis (ICD-10 F20), and were at least 16 years old when the index hospitalisation began. Cox's proportional hazards modelling and Bayesian intensity estimation were used in the analysis.
There were 1611 patients with a mean follow-up time of 4.3 years. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with decreased mortality due to suicide (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.81, p = 0.004), but no significant decrease in mortality was observed during current use of antidepressants (0.66, 0.41-1.08, p = 0.099), when compared to past use. In more detailed analysis when current users were compared to non-users, olanzapine, and mixed use of antipsychotics, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality, and mixed use also with reduced risk of suicide mortality. Current use of citalopram was associated with decreased all-cause and suicide mortality.
In a population of suicidal schizophrenic individuals antipsychotic medication, treatment was associated with lower mortality from suicide and all-causes. Antidepressive medication was associated with lower all-cause mortality when used in combination with antipsychotics.
Erratum In: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Oct;20(10):1113
Research has demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between physical function and depression, but studies on their association in migrant populations are scarce. We examined the association between mental health symptoms and mobility limitation in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland.
We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu). The participants comprised 1357 persons of Russian, Somali or Kurdish origin aged 18-64 years. Mobility limitation included self-reported difficulties in walking 500?m or stair climbing. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and symptoms of somatization using the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R). A comparison group of the general Finnish population was selected from the Health 2011 study.
Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with mobility limitation in women (Russians odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-6.94, Somalis OR 6.41; 95% CI 2.02-20.29 and Kurds OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.41-5.04), after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, obesity and chronic diseases. Also somatization increased the odds for mobility limitation in women (Russians OR 4.29; 95% CI 1.76-10.44, Somalis OR 18.83; 95% CI 6.15-57.61 and Kurds OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.91-6.52). Depressive symptoms were associated with mobility limitation in Russian and Kurdish women (Russians OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.19 and Kurds OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.39-4.99). Anxiety symptoms and somatization were associated with mobility limitation in Kurdish men when adjusted for socio-demographic factors, but not after adjusting for obesity and chronic diseases. Finnish women had similar associations as the migrant women, but Finnish men and Kurdish men showed varying associations.
Mental health symptoms are significantly associated with mobility limitation both in the studied migrant populations and in the general Finnish population. The joint nature of mental health symptoms and mobility limitation should be recognized by health professionals, also when working with migrants. This association should be addressed when developing health services and health promotion.
Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Earlier studies have documented an association between cytomegalovirus and cognitive impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Few studies have investigated the association of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with cognitive decline longitudinally. Our aim was to examine whether cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with cognitive decline in adults.
The study sample is from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901, n?=?7112), which is representative of the Finnish adult population. The sample was followed up after 11?years in the Health 2011 Survey. In addition, persons with dementia were identified from healthcare registers.
In the Finnish population aged 30 and over, the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus was estimated to be 84% and the seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus 98%. Seropositivity of the viruses and antibody levels were mostly not associated with cognitive performance. In the middle-aged adult group, cytomegalovirus serointensity was associated with impaired performance in verbal learning. However, the association disappeared when corrected for multiple testing. No interactions between infection and time or between the two infections were significant when corrected for multiple testing. Seropositivity did not predict dementia diagnosis.
The results suggest that adult levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus may not be associated with a significant decline in cognitive function or with dementia at population level.
Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression.
All non-retired patients aged 18-60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N?=?18,034): were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression.
During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8%) were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%). In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26). Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up.
Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs.
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Jan;43(1):2-911201765