Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk.
The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity.
Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend
Diabetes increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and effective means for primary prevention are warranted. We prospectively examined the joint association of diabetes and leisure-time physical activity, as well as of diabetes and BMI, with the risk of AMI.
A total of 55,534 men and women in the Norwegian HUNT Study were followed-up for first AMI by hospital admission registries and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional adjusted HRs with 95% CIs were estimated.
Overall, 1,887 incident AMIs occurred during 12.3 years. Compared with inactive people without diabetes, inactive people with diabetes had an HR of 2.37 (95% CI 1.58, 3.57), whereas the HR among highly active persons with diabetes was 1.04 (95% CI 0.62, 1.74). Normal-weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) persons with diabetes had an HR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.05, 2.44) and obese (BMI?>?30 kg/m(2)) persons with diabetes had an HR of 2.55 (95% CI 1.97, 3.29) compared with normal-weight persons without diabetes. The data suggest biological interaction between diabetes and physical activity, with a relative excess risk of inactivity and diabetes of 1.43 (95% CI 0.08, 2.78). For obesity and diabetes, the excess risk due to interaction was smaller (0.67; 95% CI -0.24, 1.58).
Body weight and, in particular, physical activity modified the association between diabetes and risk of first AMI. This highlights the potential importance of physical activity and weight maintenance in primary prevention of AMI among people with diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), and risk of fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: A longitudinal study with baseline assessment of physical exercise (frequency, duration, and intensity) and BMI was used to explore the risk of having FM at 11-year followup in a large, unselected female population (n = 15,990) without FM or physical impairments at baseline. RESULTS: At followup, 380 cases of incident FM were reported. A weak dose-response association was found between level of physical exercise and risk of FM (for trend, P = 0.13) where women who reported the highest exercise level had a relative risk (RR) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.55-1.07). BMI was an independent risk factor for FM (for trend, P or =25.0 kg/m(2)) had a 60-70% higher risk compared with women with normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Overweight or obese women who exercised > or =1 hour per week had an RR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.07-2.76) compared with normal-weight women with a similar activity level, whereas the risk was >2-fold higher for overweight or obese women who were either inactive (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.36-3.21) or exercised
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between smoking and the prevalence of intermittent claudication (IC). Between 1995 and 1997, all residents aged 20 years or older in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, were invited to take part in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag: HUNT 2). A total of 19748 participants aged 40-69 years attended. Responses to 12 questions on IC (including a Norwegian translation of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire) had been previously tested against the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI
Studies on birth size characteristics and adult risk for prostate cancer have been few and inconclusive. We prospectively examined the association between birth size and risk for prostate cancer with particular emphasis on metastatic disease. A total of 19,681 singleton males born between 1920 and 1958, whose birth records were kept at St. Olav's University Hospital (Trondheim, Norway), were followed up for prostate cancer by linkage to the Norwegian Cancer Registry. A total of 159 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during follow-up; 33 had metastases at diagnosis. Overall, there was little evidence for any association between birth size and prostate cancer risk; however, there was a positive association for birth size and metastatic disease. Men in the highest quartile of birth length (> or =53 cm) had a relative risk of 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-6.3) compared to men in the lowest quartile (
Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI) still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work.
We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20-79, followed up for mortality from 1995-1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years) in the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study (HUNT 2).
After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied.
Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.
To examine if leisure-time physical activity could cancel out the adverse effect of diabetes on cardiovascular mortality.
This study prospectively examined the combined effect of clinical diabetes and reported leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular mortality. Data on 53,587 Norwegian men and women participating in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study (1995-1997) were linked with the Cause of Death Registry at Statistics Norway.
Overall, 1,716 people died of cardiovascular disease during follow-up through 2008. Compared with the reference group of 3,077 physically inactive people without diabetes, 121 inactive people with diabetes had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.81 (95% CI 1.93-4.07). The HR (95% CI) among people who reported =3 h of light activity per week was 0.89 (0.48-1.63) if they had diabetes (n = 403) and 0.78 (0.63-0.96) if they did not (n = 17,714). Analyses stratified by total activity level showed a gradually weaker association of diabetes with mortality with increasing activity level (P(interaction) = 0.003).
The data suggest that even modest physical activity may cancel out the adverse impact of diabetes on cardiovascular mortality.
Cardiovascular risk factors are transmitted from parents to offspring; however, the relative contributions of fathers and mothers remain unclear. If maternal exposures during pregnancy influence offspring through the intrauterine environment, associations between mothers and offspring are expected to be stronger than between fathers and offspring. In this family linkage study we compared father-offspring and mother-offspring associations of several cardiovascular risk factors.
The study population consisted of 36,528 father-mother-offspring trios who participated at one or more surveys of the HUNT Study, Norway in 1984-86, 1995-97 and 2006-08. Parent-offspring associations were assessed using unstandardized and standardized residuals from linear regression analysis, and possible non-paternity was accounted for in sensitivity analyses.
Age- and sex-adjusted parent-offspring associations for anthropometric factors, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and resting heart rate were largely similar between fathers and mothers. Use of standardized values and analyses adjusted for non-paternity further emphasized this similarity.
This study found largely similar father-offspring and mother-offspring associations across all cardiovascular risk factors under study, arguing against strong maternal effects transmitted through intrauterine mechanisms.
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;43(3):772-424651398
Physical activity has been associated with lower cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes, but how diabetes severity influence this association has not been extensively studied.
We prospectively examined the joint association of diabetes severity, measured as medical treatment status and disease duration, and physical exercise with cardiovascular mortality. A total of 56,170 people were followed up for 24 years through the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated.
Overall, 7,723 people died from cardiovascular disease during the follow-up. Compared to the reference group of inactive people without diabetes, people with diabetes who reported no medical treatment had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.65 (95% CI: 1.34, 2.03) if they were inactive and a HR of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.45) if they reported =2.0 hours physical exercise per week. Among people who received oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin, the corresponding comparison gave HRs of 2.46 (95% CI: 2.08-2.92) and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.05), respectively.
The data suggest a more favourable effect of exercise in people with diabetes who used medication than in those who did not, suggesting that physical exercise should be encouraged as a therapeutic measure additional to medical treatment.
Low levels of physical activity may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic factors that are associated with the risk of premature death. It has been suggested that physical activity may reduce the impact of factors associated with metabolic syndrome, but it is not known whether physical activity may reduce mortality in people with metabolic syndrome.
In a prospective study of 50,339 people, 13,449 had metabolic syndrome at baseline and were followed up for ten years to assess cause-specific mortality. The population was divided into two age groups: those younger than 65 years of age and those older than age 65. Information on their physical activity levels was collected at baseline.
Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.20 to 1.52) and from cardiovascular causes (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.29) in people younger than 65 years old than among other populations. In older people, there was no overall association of metabolic syndrome with mortality. People with metabolic syndrome who reported high levels of physical activity at baseline were at a reduced risk of death from all causes compared to those who reported no physical activity, both in the younger age group (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.73) and in the older age group (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74).
Among people with metabolic syndrome, physical activity was associated with reduced mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Compared to inactivity, even low levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality.
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jun 12;160(11):1621-810847255