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Current evidence allows multiple models for the peopling of the Americas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294390
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 Aug; 4(8):eaat5473
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Aug-2018
Author
Ben A Potter
James F Baichtal
Alwynne B Beaudoin
Lars Fehren-Schmitz
C Vance Haynes
Vance T Holliday
Charles E Holmes
John W Ives
Robert L Kelly
Bastien Llamas
Ripan S Malhi
D Shane Miller
David Reich
Joshua D Reuther
Stephan Schiffels
Todd A Surovell
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 Aug; 4(8):eaat5473
Date
Aug-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
Some recent academic and popular literature implies that the problem of the colonization of the Americas has been largely resolved in favor of one specific model: a Pacific coastal migration, dependent on high marine productivity, from the Bering Strait to South America, thousands of years before Clovis, the earliest widespread cultural manifestation south of the glacial ice. Speculations on maritime adaptations and typological links (stemmed points) across thousands of kilometers have also been advanced. A review of the current genetic, archeological, and paleoecological evidence indicates that ancestral Native American population expansion occurred after 16,000 years ago, consistent with the archeological record, particularly with the earliest securely dated sites after ~15,000 years ago. These data are largely consistent with either an inland (ice-free corridor) or Pacific coastal routes (or both), but neither can be rejected at present. Systematic archeological and paleoecological investigations, informed by geomorphology, are required to test each hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30101195 View in PubMed
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Spatio-temporal variation in the preservation of ancient faunal remains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270118
Source
Biol Lett. 2016 Feb;12(2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Todd A Surovell
Spencer R Pelton
Source
Biol Lett. 2016 Feb;12(2)
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Palaeodemographic studies of animals using frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates are increasingly used in studies of Quaternary extinction but are complicated by taphonomic bias, or the loss of material through time. Current taphonomic models are based on the temporal frequency distributions of sediments, but bone is potentially lost at greater rates because not all sedimentary contexts preserve bone. We test the hypotheses that (i) the loss of bone over time is greater than that of sediment and (ii) this rate of loss varies geographically at large scales. We compiled radiocarbon dates on Pleistocene-aged bone from eastern Beringia (EB), the contiguous United States (CUSA) and South America (SA), from which we developed models of taphonomic loss. We find that bone is lost at greater rates than terrestrial sediment in general, but only for CUSA and SA. Bone in EB is lost at approximately the same rate as terrestrial sediments, which demonstrates the excellent preservation environments of arctic regions, presumably due to preservative effects of permafrost. These differences between bone and sediment preservation as well as between arctic and non-arctic regions should be taken into account by any research addressing past faunal population dynamics based on temporal frequency distributions.
PubMed ID
26864782 View in PubMed
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