To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is known to be associated with mortality, but its association with age-related decline in physical functioning and the development of disability is less clear. This study examined the associations between LTL and physical functioning, and investigated whether LTL predicts level of physical functioning over an 11-year follow-up. Older mono- (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin sisters (n = 386) participated in the study. Relative LTL was measured by qPCR at baseline. Physical functioning was measured by 6-min walking distance and level of physical activity (PA). Walking distance was measured at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. PA was assessed by questionnaire at baseline and at 3- and 11-year follow-ups. The baseline analysis was performed with path models, adjusted with age and within-pair dependence of twin pairs. The longitudinal analysis was performed with a repeated measures linear model adjusted for age and longitudinal within-pair dependence. A nonrandom missing data analysis was utilized. At baseline, in all individuals, LTL was associated with PA (est. 0.14, SE 0.06, p = 0.011), but not with walking distance. Over the follow-up, a borderline significant association was observed between LTL and walking distance (est. 0.14, SE 0.07, p = 0.060) and a significant association between LTL and PA (est. 0.19, SE 0.06, p = 0.001). The results suggest that LTL is associated with PA and may, therefore, serve as a biomarker predicting the development of disability. Longitudinal associations between LTL and PA were observed only when nonrandom data missingness was taken into account in the analysis.
Overweight and obesity in childhood have been linked to an increased risk of adult mortality, but evidence is still scarce.
We identified trajectories of body mass index (BMI) development in early life and investigated their mortality risk. Data come from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, in which 4943 individuals, born 1934-1944, had serial measures of weight and height from birth to 11 years extracted from health care records, weight and height data in adulthood, and register-based mortality data for 2000-2010.
Three early BMI trajectories (increasing, average, and average-to-low for men and increasing, average, and low-to-high BMI for women) were identified. Women with an increasing or low-to-high BMI (BMI lower in early childhood, later exceeded average) trajectory had an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with an average BMI trajectory (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07-2.23; and HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.37, respectively). Similar associations were observed for cancer mortality. Among men, BMI trajectories were not associated with all-cause mortality, but those with average-to-low BMI (BMI first similar then dropped below average) had an increased risk of cancer mortality.
An increasing BMI in early life may shorten the lifespan of maturing cohorts as they age, particularly among women.
This study examined effects of a social intervention on depressive symptoms, melancholy, loneliness, and perceived togetherness in community-dwelling Finnish older people.
Promotion of mental well-being in older people (GoodMood; ISRCTN78426775) was a single-blinded randomized control trial lasting 1.5 years. Two hundred and twenty-three persons aged 75-79 years reporting symptoms of loneliness or melancholy were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was allowed to choose among supervised exercise, social activity, or personal counseling. Follow-up measurements were conducted at the end of 6-month intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention.
Number of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, while loneliness and melancholy decreased in both the intervention and control groups during the study (p
The aim of this study was to describe the underlying theory and the implementation of a 2-year individualized physical activity counseling intervention and to evaluate whether benefits persisted 1.5 years after the intervention. The sample included 632 sedentary 75- to 81-year-old participants. Data were collected in 2003-2005. The participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. The intervention consisted of an individualized face-to-face meeting followed by telephone contacts every 4 months for 2 years, with the aim to increase participation in specific physical activities as well as to increase habitual physical activity. At the 2-year follow-up, the prevalence of physical activities in the intervention group vs. control group was as follows: supervised calisthenics training 20 vs. 16%, walking for fitness 69 vs. 62%, weight training 13 vs. 8% and water aerobics 19 vs. 7%. For water aerobics and walking for fitness, the treatment effect was significant [water aerobics odds ratio (OR) 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-5.36, walking for fitness OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.40]. As to the other activities, the effect did not reach statistical significance. At the 1.5-year post-intervention, the follow-up results indicated that the intervention effect was still evident. The subgroup analyses suggested that physical activity counseling may be most efficacious among people with intact mobility, while those having manifest mobility limitations may not benefit from it. Older people who have manifest mobility limitations may need more face-to-face counseling.
Environmental barriers are associated with disability-related outcomes in older people but little is known of the effect of environmental barriers on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured barriers in the outdoor, entrance and indoor environments are associated with mortality among community-dwelling 80- to 89-year-old single-living people.
This longitudinal study is based on a sample of 397 people who were single-living in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were interviewed during 2002-2003, and 393 were followed up for mortality until May 15, 2012.Environmental barriers and functional limitations were assessed with the Housing Enabler instrument, which is intended for objective assessments of Person-Environment (P-E) fit problems in housing and the immediate outdoor environment. Mortality data were gathered from the public national register. Cox regression models were used for the analyses.
A total of 264 (67%) participants died during follow-up. Functional limitations increased mortality risk. Among the specific environmental barriers that generate the most P-E fit problems, lack of handrails in stairs at entrances was associated with the highest mortality risk (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), whereas the total number of environmental barriers at entrances and outdoors was not associated with mortality. A higher number of environmental barriers indoors showed a slight protective effect against mortality even after adjustment for functional limitations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00).
Specific environmental problems may increase mortality risk among very-old single-living people. However, the association may be confounded by individuals' health status which is difficult to fully control for. Further studies are called for.
The relative contribution of different domains on walking speed is largely unknown. This study investigated the central factors associated with maximal walking speed among older people.
Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from the SCAMOB study (ISRCTN 07330512) involving 605 community-living ambulatory adults aged 75-81 years. Maximal walking speed, leg extensor power, standing balance and body mass index were measured at the research center. Physical activity, smoking, use of alcohol, chronic diseases and depressive symptoms were self-reported by standard questionnaires.
The mean maximal walking speed was 1.4 m/s (range 0.3-2.9). In linear regression analysis, age, gender and body mass index explained 11% of the variation in maximal walking speed. Adding leg extensor power and standing balance into the model increased the variation explained to 38%. Further adjusting for physical activity, smoking status and use of alcohol increased the variation explained by an additional 7%. A minor further increase in variability explained was gained by adding chronic diseases and depressive symptoms to the model. In the final model, the single most important factors associated with walking speed were leg extensor power, standing balance and physical activity, and these associations were similar in men and women and in different body mass index categories.
Lower extremity impairment and physical inactivity were the central factors associated with slow walking speed among older people, probably because these factors capture the influences of health changes and other life-style factors, potentially leading to walking limitations.
To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.
Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses.
Community and research center.
Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up.
Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period.
At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively).
Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.
To assess the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Finnish translation of the measure of processes of care for adults (MPOC-A) when used in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.
A feasibility study.
Inpatient rehabilitation settings.
A total of 858 people with severe neurological disabilities, musculoskeletal problems, and mental disorders were recruited to the study.
The MPOC-A questionnaire is a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 34 items in five-factorial domains. The construct validity of the translated questionnaire was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. To compare the fit of the model to the fit of the independent null-model Comparative Fit Index was used. Internal consistency for the total scale and subscales was calculated using Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient.
A total of 554 people, mean age 52?years (SD?=?9), participated in the study. Most of the responders had musculoskeletal problems ( n?=?328, 57%). The respondents rated the client-centeredness in rehabilitation service as moderate ( m?=?5.40, SD?=?0.81). The five-factor and the one-factor model fitted the data well according to all three indices. Internal consistency showed high reliability between the one-factor and five-factor models for all except one domain (0.49-0.93). The mean for Person Infit for the people with neurological disabilities was higher than for the other two groups ( m?=?1.77, SD?=?1.32) indicating less predictable response patterns in this group.
The results confirm the appropriate psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the MPOC-A, especially for people with musculoskeletal problems and those with mental health disorders.