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Bullying and victimisation are common in four-year-old children and are associated with somatic symptoms and conduct and peer problems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279171
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2016 May;105(5):522-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Anna-Marja Ilola
Lotta Lempinen
Jukka Huttunen
Terja Ristkari
Andre Sourander
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2016 May;105(5):522-8
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bullying - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Logistic Models
Male
Medically Unexplained Symptoms
Peer Group
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
There are few population-based studies on bullying behaviour among preschool children. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour among four-year-old children, as reported by their parents, the prevalence of types of bullying behaviour and the associations between bullying behaviour and psychosocial factors.
This study was based on a population-based study sample of 931 children who attended their check-up at a child health clinic at four years of age. Parents completed the questionnaire about their child's bullying behaviour and risk factors during the check-up.
Bullying behaviour, especially being both a bully and a victim, was a common phenomenon among four-year-old children. Being a bully or both a bully and victim were most strongly associated with conduct problems, while being a victim was associated with somatic symptoms and peer problems.
Bullying behaviour was frequently found in preschool children and associated with a wide range of other problems, which indicate that routine checking of bullying behaviour should be included in child health clinic check-ups. Bullying prevention programmes are usually targeted at school-aged children, but this study highlights the importance of focusing already on preschool children.
PubMed ID
26741067 View in PubMed
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Bullying at age eight and criminality in adulthood: findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138960
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Dec;46(12):1211-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Andre Sourander
Anat Brunstein Klomek
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Anita Puustjärvi
Henrik Elonheimo
Terja Ristkari
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Jorma Piha
John A Ronning
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University and Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland. andre.sourander@utu.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Dec;46(12):1211-9
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bullying
Child
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Sex Distribution
Time
Young Adult
Abstract
There are no prospective population-based studies examining predictive associations between childhood bullying behavior and adult criminality.
To study predictive associations between bullying and victimization at age eight and adult criminal offenses.
Nationwide birth cohort study from age 8 to 26 years.
The sample consists of 5,351 Finnish children born in 1981 with information about bullying and victimization at age eight from parents, teachers, and the children themselves.
National police register information about criminal offenses at age 23-26 years.
When controlled for the parental education level and psychopathology score, bullying sometimes and frequently independently predicted violent (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9-7.9, p
PubMed ID
21120451 View in PubMed
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Changes in adolescents mental health and use of alcohol and tobacco: a 10-year time-trend study of Finnish adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122726
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Dec;21(12):665-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Andre Sourander
Merja Koskelainen
Solja Niemelä
Maria Rihko
Terja Ristkari
Jarna Lindroos
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. andre.sourander@utu.fi
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Dec;21(12):665-71
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - trends
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology - trends
Social Adjustment
Abstract
The present study examines the 10-year time-trend changes of adolescent psychiatric symptoms, smoking and alcohol use. Representative population-based samples with same methods at two time-points, same age range and with 10-year period between the time points were gathered in Finland to investigate secular changes in adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems. Seventh and ninth grade students filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and questions regarding alcohol use and smoking anonymously during a school lesson in 1998 (n = 1458) and 2008 (n = 1569). The self-reports of SDQ showed substantial stability in emotional and behavioral problems from 1998 to 2008. There was no increase between the two timepoints in self-reports of SDQ total, conduct, hyperactivity, emotional or peer problems when using the 90th percentile clinical cut-off points. However, there was a trend showing decreasing prosocial behavior among girls indicating that proportions of adolescent boys and girls having problems in prosocial behavior have converged, The self-reported alcohol use, drunkenness and cigarette smoking decreased within the 10-year time period. Of alcohol use, the number of non-users increased from 44 to 63 % between the years 1998 and 2008. Similarly, the proportion of non-smokers increased from 56 to 68 %. Although rates of substance use declined within the 10-year study period, drunkenness-oriented alcohol use and regular smoking are still prevalent among Finnish adolescents.
PubMed ID
22782292 View in PubMed
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Childhood bullying behavior and later psychiatric hospital and psychopharmacologic treatment: findings from the Finnish 1981 birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148668
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Sep;66(9):1005-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Andre Sourander
John Ronning
Anat Brunstein-Klomek
David Gyllenberg
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Solja Niemelä
Hans Helenius
Lauri Sillanmäki
Terja Ristkari
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Jorma Piha
Fredrik Almqvist
Author Affiliation
Regional Center of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tromsö University, Tromsö, Norway. andre.sourander@utu.fi
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Sep;66(9):1005-12
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitalization
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Psychotropic Drugs - therapeutic use
Risk factors
Abstract
No prospective population-based study examining predictive associations between childhood bullying behavior and long-term mental health outcomes in both males and females exists.
To study predictive associations between bullying and victimization in childhood and later psychiatric hospital and psychopharmacologic treatment.
Nationwide birth cohort study from age 8 to 24 years.
Five thousand thirty-eight Finnish children born in 1981 with complete information about bullying and victimization at age 8 years from parents, teachers, and self-reports.
National register-based lifetime information about psychiatric hospital treatments and psychopharmacologic medication prescriptions.
When controlled for psychopathology score, frequent victim status at age 8 years among females independently predicted psychiatric hospital treatment and use of antipsychotic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic drugs. Among males, frequent bully-victim and bully-only statuses predicted use of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Frequent bully-victim status among males also predicted psychiatric hospital treatment and use of antipsychotics. However, when the analysis was controlled with total psychopathology score at age 8 years, frequent bully, victim, or bully-victim status did not predict any psychiatric outcomes among males.
Boys and girls who display frequent bullying behavior should be evaluated for possible psychiatric problems, as bullying behaviors in concert with psychiatric symptoms are early markers of risk of psychiatric outcome. Among females, frequent childhood victimization predicts later psychiatric problems irrespective of psychiatric problems at baseline.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2010 May;13(2):5921856622
PubMed ID
19736357 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of completed and severe suicide attempts: findings from the Finnish 1981 Birth Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151656
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;66(4):398-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Andre Sourander
Anat Brunstein Klomek
Solja Niemelä
Antti Haavisto
David Gyllenberg
Hans Helenius
Lauri Sillanmäki
Terja Ristkari
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Jorma Piha
Fredrik Almqvist
Madelyn S Gould
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20520 Turku, Finland. andre.sourander@utu.fi
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;66(4):398-406
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Family
Female
Finland
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Personality Assessment
Prognosis
Psychopathology
Risk factors
Statistics as Topic
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
To our knowledge, no prospective, population-based study in existence examines predictive associations between early or middle childhood psychopathologic disorders and later completed suicides.
To study predictive associations between childhood psychopathologic disorders at the age of 8 years and later completed suicides and severe suicide attempts.
Birth cohort study of individuals 8 to 24 years old.
Finland.
The sample includes 5302 Finnish people born in 1981 who were examined at the age of 8 years to gather information about psychopathologic conditions, school performance, and family demographics from parents, teachers, and children.
National register-based lifetime information about completed suicides and suicide attempts that prompted hospital admission.
Of all 24 deaths among males between 8 and 24 years of age, 13 were suicides, whereas of 16 deaths among females, only 2 were suicides. Fifty-four males and females (1%) had either completed suicide or made a serious suicide attempt, defined as a suicide attempt that prompted hospital admission. Of 27 males with completed or serious suicide attempts, 78% screened positive on parent or teacher Rutter scales at the age of 8 years, whereas of 27 females only 11% screened positive. Among males, completed or serious suicide attempt outcome was predicted at the age of 8 years by living in a nonintact family; psychological problems as reported by the primary teacher; or conduct, hyperkinetic, and emotional problems. However, self-reports of depressive symptoms at the age of 8 years did not predict suicide outcome. No predictive associations between the study variables measured at the age of 8 years and suicide outcome were found among females. Male suicide outcome was predicted most strongly by comorbid conduct and internalizing problems.
Most males who completed suicide and/or made serious suicide attempts in adolescence or early adulthood had psychiatric problems by the age of 8 years, indicating a trajectory that persists throughout their lives. However, female severe suicidality is not predicted by psychopathologic disorders at the age of 8 years. The results give additional support to the importance of early detection and treatment of psychiatric problems in males.
PubMed ID
19349309 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of psychiatric disorders among boys: a prospective community-based follow-up study from age 8 years to early adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173719
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;44(8):756-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Andre Sourander
Petteri Multimäki
Georgios Nikolakaros
Antti Haavisto
Terja Ristkari
Hans Helenius
Kai Parkkola
Jorma Piha
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Fredrik Almqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, Finland. andre.sourander@utu.fi
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;44(8):756-67
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Forecasting
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Registries
Residence Characteristics
Self-Assessment
Teaching
Abstract
To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders.
The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was based on the national military register between the years 1999 and 2004.
According to the military register, 10.4% of men had a psychiatric disorder. All informant sources, parents, teachers, and the children themselves predicted early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Conduct symptoms at age 8 independently predicted substance abuse, antisocial personality, and psychotic disorders in early adulthood. Self-reported depressive symptoms, poor school performance, and living in a nonintact family had an independent predictive association with antisocial personality and depressive disorders. Parent-reported emotional symptoms and self-reported psychosomatic symptoms independently predicted anxiety disorders. About one third of those who had used services at age 8 had a psychiatric disorder in early adulthood. Among service users, conduct and hyperkinetic symptoms predicted psychiatric disorders in early adulthood.
Efforts to prevent early adult psychiatric disturbance already present in childhood are emphasized. Active screening to detect children in need of early interventions in childhood to prevent negative development in early adulthood is justified.
PubMed ID
16034277 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of use and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24 years: findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136023
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;50(4):406-15, 415.e1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
David Gyllenberg
Andre Sourander
Solja Niemelä
Hans Helenius
Lauri Sillanmäki
Terja Ristkari
Jorma Piha
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Fredrik Almqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. david.gyllenberg@helsinki.fi
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;50(4):406-15, 415.e1
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Affective Symptoms - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Age Factors
Antidepressive Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24 years.
A total of 5,547 subjects from a nation-wide birth cohort were linked to the National Prescription Register. Information about parent- and teacher-reported conduct, hyperkinetic and emotional symptoms, and self-reported depressive symptoms was gathered at age 8 years. The main outcome measure was national register-based lifetime information about purchases of antidepressants between ages 8 and 24 years. In addition, antidepressant costs were analyzed using a Heckman maximum likelihood model.
In all, 8.8% of males and 13.8% of females had used antidepressants between age 13 and 24 years. Among males, conduct problems independently predicted later antidepressant use. In both genders, self-reported depressive symptoms and living in other than a family with two biological parent at age 8 years independently predicted later antidepressant use. Significant gender interactions were found for conduct and hyperkinetic problems, indicating that more males who had these problems at age 8 have used antidepressants compared with females with the same problems.
Childhood psychopathology predicts use of antidepressants, but the type of childhood psychopathology predicting antidepressant use is different among males and females.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 Nov;14(4):9721862486
PubMed ID
21421180 View in PubMed
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Childhood psychopathology and sense of coherence at age 18: findings from the Finnish from a boy to a man study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151773
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009 Dec;44(12):1097-105
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Terja Ristkari
Andre Sourander
John A Rønning
Jorma Piha
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Fredrik Almqvist
Author Affiliation
Deapartment of Psychiatry, Turku University, Turku, Finland. terja.ristkari@utu.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009 Dec;44(12):1097-105
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Educational Status
Family - psychology
Family Relations
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Parents - psychology
Personality Inventory
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
To examine associations between childhood psychopathology and family factors at age 8, and sense of coherence (SOC) at age 18.
The sample includes 2,314 Finnish boys born 1981 with information about psychopathology from parents and teachers using Rutter scales, and self-reports of depressive symptoms using Child Depression Inventory (CDI), and self-reports of SOC at age 18.
Low parental education level and living in other than two biological parent family at age 8 were associated with low SOC 10 years later. Boys with internalizing symptoms based on parent/teacher reports, and depressive symptoms based on self-reports at age 8 were at risk for lower SOC at follow-up. Comorbidity of internalizing and conduct problems had the strongest association with low SOC.
The study shows that internalizing symptoms, comorbid conduct and emotional problems, low parental education level and nonintact family at age 8 predict low SOC at age 18. Future research whether universal, selective or indicated early interventions targeted on risk factors of childhood mental health problems may result in promotion of well-being (including good SOC) in early adulthood is warranted.
PubMed ID
19333530 View in PubMed
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Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265208
Source
J Adolesc. 2014 Dec;37(8):1269-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Henrik Elonheimo
David Gyllenberg
Jukka Huttunen
Terja Ristkari
Lauri Sillanmäki
André Sourander
Source
J Adolesc. 2014 Dec;37(8):1269-79
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Drug Trafficking - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates.
PubMed ID
25285642 View in PubMed
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Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorders (FIPS-B): overview, design and description of the sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104728
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;68(3):169-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Roshan Chudal
Dan Sucksdorff
Auli Suominen
Venla Lehti
Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki
Jukka Huttunen
Terja Ristkari
Mika Gissler
Ian W McKeague
Alan S Brown
Andre Sourander
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Turku , Finland.
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;68(3):169-79
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Bipolar Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Data Collection - methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inpatients - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Outpatients - statistics & numerical data
Patient Discharge - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Prenatal Care - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Research Design
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Bipolar disorders (BPD) are chronic mental illnesses, the development of which involves genetic factors and environmental influences.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overall description of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorders (FIPS-B), including the study design, national registers and linkage of the registers.
FIPS-B is a population-based prenatal epidemiological study of BPD with a nested case-control study design using several national registers. The registers used are: the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR), the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR), the Population Central Register and the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC), which are linked using the unique personal identity code (PIC). FIPS-B includes all children born from January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1998 and diagnosed with BPD in Finland by December 31, 2008.
The total number of cases included in the FIPS-B is 1887. The age at first diagnosis ranged from 4 to 25 years. Half (50.4%) of the cases utilized only outpatient services, 12.7% only inpatient services and the rest (36.9%) utilized both services. Offspring of mothers with the lowest educational level had an increased odds of BPD (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.88). The cumulative incidence of BPD in the population aged 25 years or younger was 11.6/10,000 in 2008.
FIPS-B has all the strengths of a register-based prenatal epidemiological study, along with the availability of maternal biomarkers, enabling it to examine several prenatal, perinatal and familial risk factors for BPD.
PubMed ID
24627962 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.