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Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105572
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Yuliya N Sladkova
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengard
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - standards - statistics & numerical data
Sewage - adverse effects
Siberia - epidemiology
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2002 Jan-Feb;(1):6611899884
PubMed ID
24350064 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105571
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:22646
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Birgitta Evengard
Lena M Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:22646
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Drinking
Drinking Water - analysis - microbiology
Far East
Humans
Russia
Sanitation - methods - standards
Sewage - analysis
Siberia
Water Microbiology
Water Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000-2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized--underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water.
Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40-80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32-90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5-12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages--0.2-2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus--up to 0.8%. Of a total of 56 chemical pollutants analyzed in water samples from centralized water supply systems, 32 pollutants were found to be in excess of hygienic limits, with the predominant pollutants being Fe (up to 55%), Cl (up to 57%), Al (up to 43%) and Mn (up to 45%).
In 18 selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East Category I and II water reservoirs, water sources (centralized--underground, surface; non-centralized) and drinking water are highly contaminated by chemical and biological agents. Full-scale reform of the Russian water industry and water security system is urgently needed, especially in selected regions.
Notes
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2008 May-Jun;(3):16-818590142
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000 Apr;66(4):1724-510742269
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2008 Sep-Oct;(5):32-419086221
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2000 May-Jun;(3):17-910900788
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2011 May-Jun;(3):91-521842746
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2011 May-Jun;(3):10-521842728
Cites: Water Res. 2012 Mar 15;46(4):921-3322209280
PubMed ID
24350065 View in PubMed
Less detail