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Aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146937
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Aug;138(8):1166-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
S. Kaikkonen
S. Räsänen
M. Rämet
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Vaccine Research Centre, University of Tampere Medical School, Biokatu 10, Tampere, Finland. saija.kaikkonen@uta.fi
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Aug;138(8):1166-71
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Feces - virology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Kobuvirus - genetics - isolation & purification
Male
Phylogeny
Picornaviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
RNA, Viral - analysis
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Abstract
Aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. In addition to several Asian countries, South America and Africa, Aichi virus has also recently been found in Europe. Our objective was to study the causative role of Aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland. We analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of acute gastroenteritis. The screening was done by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 519-bp segment and a 223-bp segment in the 3CD junction region of non-structural proteins. Aichi virus was detected in five stool samples (0.5%), of which four were co-infections with other gastroenteritis viruses. Two Aichi virus genotypes, A and B, were found. Aichi virus appears to be rare in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.
PubMed ID
19961643 View in PubMed
Less detail

Clinical trials of live oral rotavirus vaccines: the Finnish experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222146
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):255-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):255-61
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Animals
Cattle - microbiology
Child, Preschool
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Diarrhea, Infantile - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Double-Blind Method
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Macaca mulatta - microbiology
Rotavirus - immunology - isolation & purification
Rotavirus Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Vaccination - economics
Vaccines, Attenuated
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Live oral candidate rotavirus vaccines of bovine (RIT 4237) or rhesus (RRV-1) origin and reassortants of RRV-1 expressing human serotype 1 (DxRRV) or serotype 2 (DS1xRRV) VP7 protein were evaluated for clinical efficacy in young children in successive trials from 1983 to 1989. In each study, the vaccinations were given before a rotavirus epidemic season and the follow-up of vaccinees covered two rotavirus epidemic seasons lasting up to 2-3 years of age. Serotype 1 rotavirus was predominant in each season. Protection rates against all rotavirus-associated diarrhoea ranged from 0 to 67% but were higher, up to 100%, against more severe rotavirus disease. All tested vaccines also showed efficacy for diarrhoea not apparently associated with rotavirus; therefore the clinical benefit of the vaccinations was greater than could be deduced from efficacy rates for rotavirus-associated diarrhoea alone. Each of the candidate vaccines could significantly reduce severe diarrhoea in Finnish children in the first 2 to 3 years of life. For optimal efficacy, the vaccines should be administered in the autumn before the regular epidemic season of rotavirus.
PubMed ID
8382419 View in PubMed
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Community-based survey of paediatric diarrhoeal morbidity and home treatment practices in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204378
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1998 Sep;87(9):986-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
T. Rautanen
S. Halme
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Jorvi Hospital, Espoo, Finland.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1998 Sep;87(9):986-90
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea, Infantile - epidemiology - therapy
Finland - epidemiology
Fluid Therapy
Health Care Surveys
Home Nursing
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Abstract
To determine total diarrhoeal morbidity and current home case management practices, a recall study was conducted among 345 mothers whose 406 children under 5 y of age had had diarrhoea in the past 4 months. The seasonally adjusted annual diarrhoea incidence rate was 0.48 episodes/child/y. For home treatment, increased amounts of fluid were given in 93% and oral rehydration solution (ORS) in 37% of cases. However, when given, ORS was diluted with other fluids in 41% of cases. More than half (55%) of the children received increased or normal amounts of food during the diarrhoeal episode, but 7% of the children were kept fasting for at least 1 d. Use of antidiarrhoeal drugs was minimal (0.7%), but products containing lactic acid bacteria were given in 44% of cases. Case management practice in cases of diarrhoea at home have much improved during the last 20 y, but are still not optimal.
PubMed ID
9764895 View in PubMed
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Decline of mumps antibodies in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children and a plateau in the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes after introduction of the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in Finland. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219681
Source
Diabetologia. 1993 Dec;36(12):1303-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
H. Hyöty
M. Hiltunen
A. Reunanen
P. Leinikki
T. Vesikari
R. Lounamaa
J. Tuomilehto
H K Akerblom
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.
Source
Diabetologia. 1993 Dec;36(12):1303-8
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - immunology
Drug Combinations
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - blood
Incidence
Infant
Male
Measles Vaccine - adverse effects
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
Mumps Vaccine - adverse effects
Mumps virus - immunology
Rubella Vaccine - adverse effects
Sex Factors
Abstract
A nationwide mumps-measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in 1982 in Finland to children aged 1.5 to 6 years and since then mumps has virtually disappeared in the country. We investigated whether this rapid epidemiological change had any impact on antibody activity against mumps virus in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children or on the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Finland. Two case-control series were collected before (series I and II) and three series after (series III-V) the introduction of the vaccination. IgA class mumps antibody levels were significantly higher in Type 1 diabetic children than in matched control children in the first two but not in the three later series. IgG class antibody levels were similar in patients and control subjects in the first two series but significantly lower in patients than in control subjects in the three later series. The overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 0-14-year-old children increased until 1987 but remained about the same during 1988-1990. In 5-9-year-old children no further increase in Type 1 diabetes was seen since 1985, whereas in 0-4-year-old children the incidence continued to rise until 1990. The results suggest that the elimination of natural mumps by mumps-measles-rubella vaccination may have decreased the risk for Type 1 diabetes in Finland; a possible causal relationship is substantiated by the observed concomitant decrease in mumps antibody levels in diabetic children. However, further studies are required to determine if the vaccine virus, like natural mumps, could trigger the clinical onset of Type 1 diabetes in young children.
PubMed ID
8307260 View in PubMed
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Detection of Norwalk virus or Norwalk-like virus infections in Finnish infants and young children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218032
Source
J Infect Dis. 1994 Jun;169(6):1364-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
J F Lew
J. Valdesuso
T. Vesikari
A Z Kapikian
X. Jiang
M K Estes
K Y Green
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1994 Jun;169(6):1364-7
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Child, Preschool
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - analysis
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Norwalk virus - isolation & purification
Risk factors
Abstract
Norwalk virus (NV) and Norwalk-like viruses are important causes of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in older children and adults. Serologic responses to NV of 154 Finnish infants and young children participating in a rotavirus vaccine study were examined by ELISA with a recently available baculovirus-expressed recombinant NV capsid protein. In 4 serially collected sera (at the median ages of 3, 4, 14, and 23 months), 49% of children had at least one NV infection over the approximately 2-year study period. Children with low NV-specific IgG titers ( 1:50) (P
PubMed ID
8195618 View in PubMed
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Economic evaluation of rotavirus vaccinations in Finland: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204791
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;27(2):272-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
A K Takala
E. Koskenniemi
J. Joensuu
M. Mäkelä
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Vaccines, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;27(2):272-82
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Double-Blind Method
Finland
Gastroenteritis - economics - prevention & control - virology
Humans
Infant
Rotavirus - immunology
Rotavirus Infections - economics - prevention & control
Rotavirus Vaccines
Vaccination - economics
Vaccines, Attenuated - administration & dosage - economics - immunology
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage - economics - immunology
Abstract
The cost-benefit ratio of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) in Finland for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Costs related to vaccination, side effects, and gastroenteritis were identified. Children received RRV-TV (n = 1,191) or placebo (n = 1,207) at 2, 3, and 5 months of age with other infant vaccinations. Prospective follow-up averaged 1.0 years per child. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed from the perspective of society. Nine cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the RRV-TV group, versus 100 in the placebo group (P
PubMed ID
9709876 View in PubMed
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Effect of rotavirus vaccine on Sapporo virus gastroenteritis in Finnish infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195011
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Mar;20(3):295-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
X L Pang
S Q Zeng
S. Honma
S. Nakata
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Medical School, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Mar;20(3):295-300
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control
Diarrhea - virology
Double-Blind Method
Feces - virology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control - virology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rotavirus Vaccines - administration & dosage
Sapovirus - genetics - isolation & purification
Seasons
Abstract
Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs) occur worldwide, but there is limited information about the SLV-associated gastroenteritis outside Japan.
Stool specimens from 1,432 episodes of gastroenteritis that occurred in children between 2 months and 2 years of age during a rotavirus vaccine trial (776 episodes in placebo-vaccinated and 656 in rotavirus-vaccinated infants) were examined for SLVs using a reverse transcription-PCR assay. The reverse transcription-PCR took advantage of new primers specific for Sapporo virus genetic clusters I, II and III; SV/SV82 (SV/Sapporo virus 82); SV/Lond92 (SV/ London 92); and SV/PV (Parkville virus).
SLVs were detected in association with 132 (9.2%) of all episodes; in 80 (5.6%) episodes SLV was the only gastroenteritis virus detected. The epidemic season of SLVs peaked from March to May concurrently with rotaviruses and astroviruses and overlapping withNorwalk-like viruses. Clinically SLV gastroenteritis was characterized by a mild diarrheal disease, being sharply different from the Norwalk-like virus-associated "winter vomiting disease." Rotavirus vaccination did not have any effect on the number of SLV episodes, but the intensity and duration of SLV-associated diarrhea were reduced in rotavirus-vaccinated children compared with placebo-vaccinated children (P = 0.0008).
SLVs are common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in young Finnish children. SLV disease is characterized by diarrhea, which is usually mild but can be severe. By an unknown mechanism rotavirus vaccine seems to reduce the severity of SLV-associated diarrhea.
PubMed ID
11303833 View in PubMed
Less detail

Enterotoxigenic and invasive Escherichia coli as causes of childhood diarrhoea in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245986
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1980 Mar;69(2):219-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1980
Author
M. Mäki
T. Vesikari
P. Grönroos
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1980 Mar;69(2):219-24
Date
Mar-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea - etiology
Diarrhea, Infantile - etiology
Enterotoxins - analysis
Escherichia coli Infections - complications
Female
Finland
Gastroenteritis - etiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Serotyping
Abstract
E. coli was considered as the possible aetiologic agent in 16 cases (5.7%) of 283 hospital admissions for diarrhoea. One invasive strain was isolated from a case with exudative diarrhoea. Four heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin-producing strains were found in relatively mild cases of diarrhoea. Eleven strains belonged to "classic" pathogenic serotypes (EPEC); 9 of these were endemic cases and 2 associated with travel. Of the latter, 1 strain (078) was also found to produce heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin detectable by infant mouse assay. Although EPEC are now found much less frequently than 20 years ago, E. coli as a whole may still be the most common bacterial aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in Finland.
PubMed ID
6989156 View in PubMed
Less detail

Epidemiologic background for the need of rotavirus vaccine in Finland. Preliminary experience of RIT 4237 strain of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine in adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature242554
Source
Dev Biol Stand. 1983;53:229-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
1983
Author
T. Vesikari
M. Mäki
E. Isolauri
Source
Dev Biol Stand. 1983;53:229-36
Date
1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - analysis
Diarrhea, Infantile - epidemiology - prevention & control
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Epidemiologic Methods
Finland
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Rotavirus - immunology
Rotavirus Infections - prevention & control
Vaccination
Vaccines, Attenuated - administration & dosage
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage
Abstract
Epidemiologic evidence from Finland indicates a dramatic change in the seasonal pattern of acute diarrhoea over the past 30 years. While in the 1950's the majority of cases occurred in late summer the seasonal peak in the 1970's was in winter and spring, coinciding with the prevalence of rotavirus infections. It is not possible to determine retrospectively the aetiologic agents involved in the summer diarrhoea, but EPEC may have been one of them, as EPEC are quite rare in Finland today compared to the 1950's. Another change over the time period is a shift in the age distribution of acute diarrhoea from neonates towards older infants. Rotavirus is today associated with approximately 50% of the cases of acute diarrhoea in children in Finland. Based on experience in one Central Hospital it was estimated that the treatment of rotavirus infections may require some 7300 hospital days in Finland annually, which figure is comparable to that of mumps. As a recent cost-benefit analysis in Finland indicated that a mumps vaccination programme would be economically quite efficacious, the same could be assumed to be true for rotavirus vaccination, provided that an effective and safe vaccine was available. In a preliminary trial of RIT 4237 strain of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine in 20 healthy adult volunteers no clinical symptoms and no excretion of vaccine virus were observed. Rotavirus ELISA antibody booster response was found in 1/20 vaccinees.
PubMed ID
6307778 View in PubMed
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33 records – page 1 of 4.