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Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199563
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jan;9(1):55-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2000
Author
K J Aronson
A B Miller
C G Woolcott
E E Sterns
D R McCready
L A Lickley
E B Fish
G Y Hiraki
C. Holloway
T. Ross
W M Hanna
S K SenGupta
J P Weber
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. aronson@post.queensu.ca
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jan;9(1):55-63
Date
Jan-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Age Factors
Biopsy
Breast - chemistry
Breast Neoplasms - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood - classification
Female
Humans
Insecticides - analysis - blood - classification
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood - classification
Postmenopause
Premenopause
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
Numerous studies have examined the relationship between organochlorines and breast cancer, but the results are not consistent. In most studies, organochlorines were measured in serum, but levels in breast adipose tissue are higher and represent cumulative internal exposure at the target site for breast cancer. Therefore, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the association between breast cancer risk and breast adipose tissue concentrations of several organochlorines. Women scheduled for excision biopsy of the breast were enrolled and completed a questionnaire. The biopsy tissue of 217 cases and 213 benign controls frequency matched by study site and age in 5-year groups was analyzed for 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, total PCBs, and 10 other organochlorines, including p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of risk. While adjusting for age, menopausal status, and other factors, odds ratios (ORs) were above 1.0 for almost all organochlorines except five pesticide residues. The ORs were above two in the highest concentration categories of PCB congeners 105 and 118, and the ORs for these PCBs increased linearly across categories (Ps for trend
PubMed ID
10667464 View in PubMed
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Burden of community-onset bloodstream infection: a population-based assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166162
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug;135(6):1037-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
K B Laupland
D B Gregson
W W Flemons
D. Hawkins
T. Ross
D L Church
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Health Region, Alberta, Canada. kevin.laupland@calgaryhealthregion.ca
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug;135(6):1037-42
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Bacteremia - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Pneumococcal Infections - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology
Abstract
Although community-onset bloodstream infection (BSI) is recognized to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of population-based studies defining its overall burden. We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for all community-onset BSI in the Calgary Health Region during 2000-2004. A total of 4467 episodes of community-onset BSI were identified for an overall annual incidence of 81.6/100,000. The three species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were responsible for the majority of community-onset BSI; they occurred at annual rates of 25.8, 13.5, and 10.1/100,000, respectively. Overall 3445/4467 (77%) episodes resulted in hospital admission representing 0.7% of all admissions to major acute care hospitals. The subsequent hospital length of stay was a median of 9 (interquartile range, 5-15) days; the total days of acute hospitalization attributable to community-onset BSI was 51,146 days or 934 days/100,000 annually. Four hundred and sixty patients died in hospital for a case-fatality rate of 13%. Community-onset BSI is common and has a major patient and societal impact. These data support further efforts to reduce the burden of community-onset BSI.
Notes
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Cites: BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:3515904503
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Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 1;43(1):32-916758415
PubMed ID
17156500 View in PubMed
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Common infectious diseases in a population with low multiple sclerosis and varicella occurrence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209147
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1997 Mar;50(3):337-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
R T Ross
M. Cheang
Author Affiliation
Section of Neurology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1997 Mar;50(3):337-9
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Chickenpox - complications - ethnology
Christianity
Communicable Diseases - complications - ethnology
Ethnic Groups
Herpes Zoster - complications - ethnology
Humans
Manitoba - epidemiology
Matched-Pair Analysis
Multiple Sclerosis - complications - ethnology
Sex Factors
Abstract
A previous study revealed the rarity of varicella zoster virus (VZV) diseases among 5601 Hutterite Brethren living in a high-risk area for these diseases. The current study was established to determine the frequency of other common infectious diseases. The information was gathered from a population-based study of a unique group of Manitoba citizens and compared with an equal number of their age and sex-matched neighbors. The data were contained in the records of the Manitoba Health Services Commission (MHSC). The MHSC, the sole paying agency for medical diseases in Manitoba, contained 94,383,972 records for all of Manitoba for the years 1985 to 1991 inclusive. From these, the records of a cohort of 5601 Hutterites and an equal number of non-Hutterite age- and sex-matched controls were examined for the frequency of 14 diseases of interest. To be eligible a Hutterite subject must have one of the 22 unique family names and live on a Colony with the precise address. A control must be age (within 10 years) and sex-matched, live in the same or a contiguous postal code, and use the same medical practitioners. There were no interventions or identification of any member of the study. Mumps, acute coryza, and rubella are of the same frequency among the two groups. Only herpes simplex and cellulitis are more common among the Hutterites. All of the other nine common infectious diseases are significantly more common among the controls. The VZV diseases are not exclusively less common among the Hutterite Brethren. Nine other common infectious diseases are also less common but the degree of significant difference does not reach the level of the VZV diseases. The reduction in numbers of these diseases among the Hutterites is not related to the vaccination habits of the group and is not due to physical isolation. The Hutterites appear to have a more effective immune system relative to their neighbors.
PubMed ID
9120534 View in PubMed
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Community-onset urinary tract infections: a population-based assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163042
Source
Infection. 2007 Jun;35(3):150-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
K B Laupland
T. Ross
J D D Pitout
D L Church
D B Gregson
Author Affiliation
Calgary Laboratory Services, Centre for Anti-microbial Resistance, University of Calgary and Calgary Health Region, Room 1W-415, #9, 3535 Research Road NW, T2L 2K8 Calgary, AB, Canada. kevin.laupland@calgaryhealthregion.ca
Source
Infection. 2007 Jun;35(3):150-3
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Urinary Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Abstract
Although multiple studies have investigated community-onset urinary tract infections (UTI), population-based data are lacking. We therefore conducted population-based laboratory surveillance in order to define the incidence, demographic risk factors, etiology, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of community onset UTI in a large Canadian region.
Laboratory surveillance for all community onset UTIs among residents of the Calgary Health Region (population approximately 1.2 million) was conducted during 2004/2005. Repeated positive samples within a 1-month period and those infections first cultured more than 2 days after admission to a hospital were excluded.
A total of 40,618 episodes of community onset UTI occurred among 30,851 residents for an overall annual incidence of 17.5 per 1,000. Seventy-four percent of the cultures were submitted from ambulatory patients, 18% from hospitalized patients within the first 2 days of admission, and 9% from nursing home residents. Females were at significantly increased risk as compared to males (30.0 vs 5.0 per 1,000, RR 5.98; 95% CI, 5.81-6.15; p
PubMed ID
17565455 View in PubMed
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Effect of potassium lactate and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend on Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged sliced ham.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160564
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Oct;70(10):2297-305
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
L A Mellefont
T. Ross
Author Affiliation
Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. lyndal.mellefont@utas.edu.au
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Oct;70(10):2297-305
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Colony Count, Microbial
Food contamination - analysis
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Food Packaging - methods
Food Preservation - methods
Food Preservatives - pharmacology
Humans
Lactates - pharmacology
Listeria monocytogenes - drug effects - growth & development
Meat Products - microbiology
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sodium Acetate - pharmacology
Swine
Temperature
Time Factors
Abstract
Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. monocytogenes (10(1) or 10(3) CFU g(-1)) and storage temperature (4 or 8 degrees C) was also examined. The addition of either organic acid salt to MAP sliced ham strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during the normal shelf life of the product under ideal refrigeration conditions (4 degrees C) and even under abusive temperature conditions (i.e., 8 degrees C). During the challenge studies and in the absence of either organic acid salt, L. monocytogenes numbers increased by 1000-fold after 20 days at 8 degrees C and 10-fold after 42 days at 4 degrees C. Both organic acid salt treatments were found to be listeriostatic rather than listericidal. The addition of either organic acid salt to the MAP ham also reduced the growth of indigenous microflora, i.e., aerobic microflora and lactic acid bacteria. The influence of these compounds on the risk of listeriosis in relation to product shelf life is discussed.
PubMed ID
17969611 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of Clostridium species bacteremia in Calgary, Canada, 2000-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155884
Source
J Infect. 2008 Sep;57(3):198-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
J. Leal
D B Gregson
T. Ross
D L Church
K B Laupland
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
J Infect. 2008 Sep;57(3):198-203
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Bacteremia - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Clostridium - classification - isolation & purification
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Length of Stay
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - complications
Penicillin resistance
Renal Dialysis - adverse effects
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To define the incidence, risk factors for acquisition, and outcomes associated with clostridial bacteremia in a large Canadian health region.
Retrospective population-based surveillance for clostridial bacteremia was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (population 1.2 million) during 2000-2006.
One hundred and thirty-eight residents had incident Clostridium species bacteremia (1.8 per 100,000/year); 45 (33%) were nosocomial, 55 (40%) were healthcare-associated community onset, and 38 (28%) were community acquired. Older age and a number of underlying conditions were risk factors for acquiring Clostridium species bacteremia most importantly hemodialysis [relative risk (RR) 212.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 106.5-385.5], malignancy (RR 40.2; 95% CI 27.6-58.1), and Crohn's disease (RR 11.2; 95% CI 3.0-29.4). Clostridium perfringens was most commonly identified with 58 (42%) isolates followed by Clostridium septicum (19; 14%), Clostridium ramosum (13; 9%), Clostridium clostridiiforme (8; 6%), and Clostridium difficile (7; 5%). Reduced susceptibility to penicillin occurred in 14/135 (10%), to metronidazole in 2/135 (1%), and to clindamycin in 36/135 (27%) isolates. The median length of stay was 12.7 days and 39/130 (30%) patients died in hospital for mortality rate of 0.5 per 100,000/year.
Clostridium species bacteremia is associated with a significant burden of illness and hemodialysis and cancer patients are at highest risk.
PubMed ID
18672296 View in PubMed
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Source
Can J Neurol Sci. 1999 Feb;26(1):29-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
R T Ross
M. Cheang
G. Landry
L. Klassen
K. Doerksen
Author Affiliation
Section of Neurology, University of Manitoba and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Can J Neurol Sci. 1999 Feb;26(1):29-32
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Data Collection
Female
Herpes Zoster - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Population
Abstract
Clinical experience suggests that young multiple sclerosis patients may have herpes zoster (HZ) earlier and more often than the general population. As there is evidence of a relationship between varicella zoster virus (VZV) and MS, a study of HZ and MS was undertaken.
Eight hundred and twenty-nine patient-members of the Manitoba Chapter of the Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Society were surveyed by mail. Six hundred and thirty-three (76%) responded. Questions included: age at diagnosis of MS, history of HZ (yes, no, probably), number of episodes of HZ and age at each occurrence, date of birth, and sex of respondent. The controls were consecutive patients with other neurological diseases (OND) attending local neurological or neurosurgical clinics, plus practice-based and population-based surveys of herpes zoster without reference to any other disease. The OND controls were assessed at the time of their outpatient visits.
In the MS group with a positive/probable history of HZ, the HZ/MS rate was 106/633 (16.8%); in the practice-based survey the rate was 192/3534 (5.4%); and among the patients with OND it was 42/616 (6.8%). The HZ occurred at an earlier age in the MS group. The majority of male patients had HZ prior to the diagnosis of MS. The date of diagnosis is more likely to be a precise memory as opposed to the onset of symptoms. More than one attack of HZ was also more common in the MS group.
This survey adds to the evidence that patients with MS have a unique relationship with the herpes zoster virus.
PubMed ID
10068804 View in PubMed
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Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of Escherichia coli bloodstream infections in a large Canadian region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153993
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Nov;14(11):1041-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
K B Laupland
D B Gregson
D L Church
T. Ross
J D D Pitout
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, ALberta, Canada. kevin.laupland@calgaryhealthregion.ca
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Nov;14(11):1041-7
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteremia - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Although Escherichia coli is the most common cause of bloodstream infection, its epidemiology has not been well defined in non-selected populations. We sought to describe the incidence of risk factors for, and outcomes associated with, E. coli bacteraemia. Population-based surveillance for E. coli bacteraemia was conducted in the Calgary Health Region (population 1.2 million) during the period 2000-2006. In total, 2368 episodes of E. coli bacteraemia were identified for an overall annual population incidence of 30.3/100 000; 15% were nosocomial, 32% were healthcare-associated community-onset and 53% were community-acquired bacteraemias. The very young and the elderly were at highest risk for E. coli bacteraemia. Sixty per cent of the episodes occurred in females (relative risk 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.6). Dialysis, solid organ transplantation and neoplastic disease were the most important risk factors for acquiring E. coli bacteraemia. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone increased significantly during the period 2000-2006. The case-fatality rate was 11% and the annual population mortality rate was 2.9/100 000. Increasing age, ciprofloxacin resistance, non-urinary focus and a number of comorbid illnesses were independently associated with an increased risk of death, and community acquisition and urinary focus were associated with a lower risk of death. This study documents the major burden of illness associated with E. coli bacteraemia and identifies groups at increased risk for acquiring and dying from these infections. The emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance and its adverse effect on patient outcome is a major concern.
PubMed ID
19040476 View in PubMed
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Intensive-care-unit-acquired bloodstream infections in a regional critically ill population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178027
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2004 Oct;58(2):137-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
K B Laupland
A W Kirkpatrick
D L Church
T. Ross
D B Gregson
Author Affiliation
Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary and Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alta., Canada. kevin.laupland@calgaryhealthregion.ca
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2004 Oct;58(2):137-45
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
APACHE
Adult
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Bacteremia - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Bacteria, Anaerobic - isolation & purification
Candida - isolation & purification
Cohort Studies
Critical Illness
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Gram-Negative Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Bacteria - isolation & purification
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Intensive Care Units
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Abstract
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious complication of critical illness but it is uncertain whether acquisition of BSI in the intensive care unit (ICU) increases the risk of death. A study was conducted among all Calgary health region (population approximately 1 million) adults admitted to ICUs for 48 h or more during a three-year period to investigate the occurrence, microbiology and risk factors for developing an ICU-acquired BSI and to determine whether these infections independently predict mortality. One hundred and ninety-nine ICU-acquired BSI episodes occurred during 4933 ICU admissions for a cumulative incidence of 4% and an incidence density of 5.4 per 1000 ICU days. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (18%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11%), and Enterococcus faecalis (8%); 12% of infections were due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Admission to the regional neurosurgery/trauma ICU [odds ratio (OR) 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-3.90] and increasing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (OR 1.05 per point, 95% CI 1.03-1.07) were associated with higher risk, whereas a surgical diagnosis (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52-0.93) was associated with lower risk of developing ICU-acquired BSI in logistic regression analysis. The crude in-hospital death rate was 45% for patients with ICU-acquired BSI compared with 21% for those without (P
PubMed ID
15474185 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.