Numerous studies have examined the relationship between organochlorines and breast cancer, but the results are not consistent. In most studies, organochlorines were measured in serum, but levels in breast adipose tissue are higher and represent cumulative internal exposure at the target site for breast cancer. Therefore, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the association between breast cancer risk and breast adipose tissue concentrations of several organochlorines. Women scheduled for excision biopsy of the breast were enrolled and completed a questionnaire. The biopsy tissue of 217 cases and 213 benign controls frequency matched by study site and age in 5-year groups was analyzed for 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, total PCBs, and 10 other organochlorines, including p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of risk. While adjusting for age, menopausal status, and other factors, odds ratios (ORs) were above 1.0 for almost all organochlorines except five pesticide residues. The ORs were above two in the highest concentration categories of PCB congeners 105 and 118, and the ORs for these PCBs increased linearly across categories (Ps for trend
Although community-onset bloodstream infection (BSI) is recognized to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of population-based studies defining its overall burden. We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for all community-onset BSI in the Calgary Health Region during 2000-2004. A total of 4467 episodes of community-onset BSI were identified for an overall annual incidence of 81.6/100,000. The three species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were responsible for the majority of community-onset BSI; they occurred at annual rates of 25.8, 13.5, and 10.1/100,000, respectively. Overall 3445/4467 (77%) episodes resulted in hospital admission representing 0.7% of all admissions to major acute care hospitals. The subsequent hospital length of stay was a median of 9 (interquartile range, 5-15) days; the total days of acute hospitalization attributable to community-onset BSI was 51,146 days or 934 days/100,000 annually. Four hundred and sixty patients died in hospital for a case-fatality rate of 13%. Community-onset BSI is common and has a major patient and societal impact. These data support further efforts to reduce the burden of community-onset BSI.
Cites: Pediatrics. 2000 May;105(5):E6010799624
Cites: Med J Aust. 2000 Oct 2;173 Suppl:S32-511062804
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 15;184(8):1029-3411574918
A previous study revealed the rarity of varicella zoster virus (VZV) diseases among 5601 Hutterite Brethren living in a high-risk area for these diseases. The current study was established to determine the frequency of other common infectious diseases. The information was gathered from a population-based study of a unique group of Manitoba citizens and compared with an equal number of their age and sex-matched neighbors. The data were contained in the records of the Manitoba Health Services Commission (MHSC). The MHSC, the sole paying agency for medical diseases in Manitoba, contained 94,383,972 records for all of Manitoba for the years 1985 to 1991 inclusive. From these, the records of a cohort of 5601 Hutterites and an equal number of non-Hutterite age- and sex-matched controls were examined for the frequency of 14 diseases of interest. To be eligible a Hutterite subject must have one of the 22 unique family names and live on a Colony with the precise address. A control must be age (within 10 years) and sex-matched, live in the same or a contiguous postal code, and use the same medical practitioners. There were no interventions or identification of any member of the study. Mumps, acute coryza, and rubella are of the same frequency among the two groups. Only herpes simplex and cellulitis are more common among the Hutterites. All of the other nine common infectious diseases are significantly more common among the controls. The VZV diseases are not exclusively less common among the Hutterite Brethren. Nine other common infectious diseases are also less common but the degree of significant difference does not reach the level of the VZV diseases. The reduction in numbers of these diseases among the Hutterites is not related to the vaccination habits of the group and is not due to physical isolation. The Hutterites appear to have a more effective immune system relative to their neighbors.
Calgary Laboratory Services, Centre for Anti-microbial Resistance, University of Calgary and Calgary Health Region, Room 1W-415, #9, 3535 Research Road NW, T2L 2K8 Calgary, AB, Canada. email@example.com
Although multiple studies have investigated community-onset urinary tract infections (UTI), population-based data are lacking. We therefore conducted population-based laboratory surveillance in order to define the incidence, demographic risk factors, etiology, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of community onset UTI in a large Canadian region.
Laboratory surveillance for all community onset UTIs among residents of the Calgary Health Region (population approximately 1.2 million) was conducted during 2004/2005. Repeated positive samples within a 1-month period and those infections first cultured more than 2 days after admission to a hospital were excluded.
A total of 40,618 episodes of community onset UTI occurred among 30,851 residents for an overall annual incidence of 17.5 per 1,000. Seventy-four percent of the cultures were submitted from ambulatory patients, 18% from hospitalized patients within the first 2 days of admission, and 9% from nursing home residents. Females were at significantly increased risk as compared to males (30.0 vs 5.0 per 1,000, RR 5.98; 95% CI, 5.81-6.15; p
Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. monocytogenes (10(1) or 10(3) CFU g(-1)) and storage temperature (4 or 8 degrees C) was also examined. The addition of either organic acid salt to MAP sliced ham strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during the normal shelf life of the product under ideal refrigeration conditions (4 degrees C) and even under abusive temperature conditions (i.e., 8 degrees C). During the challenge studies and in the absence of either organic acid salt, L. monocytogenes numbers increased by 1000-fold after 20 days at 8 degrees C and 10-fold after 42 days at 4 degrees C. Both organic acid salt treatments were found to be listeriostatic rather than listericidal. The addition of either organic acid salt to the MAP ham also reduced the growth of indigenous microflora, i.e., aerobic microflora and lactic acid bacteria. The influence of these compounds on the risk of listeriosis in relation to product shelf life is discussed.
To define the incidence, risk factors for acquisition, and outcomes associated with clostridial bacteremia in a large Canadian health region.
Retrospective population-based surveillance for clostridial bacteremia was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (population 1.2 million) during 2000-2006.
One hundred and thirty-eight residents had incident Clostridium species bacteremia (1.8 per 100,000/year); 45 (33%) were nosocomial, 55 (40%) were healthcare-associated community onset, and 38 (28%) were community acquired. Older age and a number of underlying conditions were risk factors for acquiring Clostridium species bacteremia most importantly hemodialysis [relative risk (RR) 212.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 106.5-385.5], malignancy (RR 40.2; 95% CI 27.6-58.1), and Crohn's disease (RR 11.2; 95% CI 3.0-29.4). Clostridium perfringens was most commonly identified with 58 (42%) isolates followed by Clostridium septicum (19; 14%), Clostridium ramosum (13; 9%), Clostridium clostridiiforme (8; 6%), and Clostridium difficile (7; 5%). Reduced susceptibility to penicillin occurred in 14/135 (10%), to metronidazole in 2/135 (1%), and to clindamycin in 36/135 (27%) isolates. The median length of stay was 12.7 days and 39/130 (30%) patients died in hospital for mortality rate of 0.5 per 100,000/year.
Clostridium species bacteremia is associated with a significant burden of illness and hemodialysis and cancer patients are at highest risk.
Clinical experience suggests that young multiple sclerosis patients may have herpes zoster (HZ) earlier and more often than the general population. As there is evidence of a relationship between varicella zoster virus (VZV) and MS, a study of HZ and MS was undertaken.
Eight hundred and twenty-nine patient-members of the Manitoba Chapter of the Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Society were surveyed by mail. Six hundred and thirty-three (76%) responded. Questions included: age at diagnosis of MS, history of HZ (yes, no, probably), number of episodes of HZ and age at each occurrence, date of birth, and sex of respondent. The controls were consecutive patients with other neurological diseases (OND) attending local neurological or neurosurgical clinics, plus practice-based and population-based surveys of herpes zoster without reference to any other disease. The OND controls were assessed at the time of their outpatient visits.
In the MS group with a positive/probable history of HZ, the HZ/MS rate was 106/633 (16.8%); in the practice-based survey the rate was 192/3534 (5.4%); and among the patients with OND it was 42/616 (6.8%). The HZ occurred at an earlier age in the MS group. The majority of male patients had HZ prior to the diagnosis of MS. The date of diagnosis is more likely to be a precise memory as opposed to the onset of symptoms. More than one attack of HZ was also more common in the MS group.
This survey adds to the evidence that patients with MS have a unique relationship with the herpes zoster virus.
Although Escherichia coli is the most common cause of bloodstream infection, its epidemiology has not been well defined in non-selected populations. We sought to describe the incidence of risk factors for, and outcomes associated with, E. coli bacteraemia. Population-based surveillance for E. coli bacteraemia was conducted in the Calgary Health Region (population 1.2 million) during the period 2000-2006. In total, 2368 episodes of E. coli bacteraemia were identified for an overall annual population incidence of 30.3/100 000; 15% were nosocomial, 32% were healthcare-associated community-onset and 53% were community-acquired bacteraemias. The very young and the elderly were at highest risk for E. coli bacteraemia. Sixty per cent of the episodes occurred in females (relative risk 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.6). Dialysis, solid organ transplantation and neoplastic disease were the most important risk factors for acquiring E. coli bacteraemia. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone increased significantly during the period 2000-2006. The case-fatality rate was 11% and the annual population mortality rate was 2.9/100 000. Increasing age, ciprofloxacin resistance, non-urinary focus and a number of comorbid illnesses were independently associated with an increased risk of death, and community acquisition and urinary focus were associated with a lower risk of death. This study documents the major burden of illness associated with E. coli bacteraemia and identifies groups at increased risk for acquiring and dying from these infections. The emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance and its adverse effect on patient outcome is a major concern.
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious complication of critical illness but it is uncertain whether acquisition of BSI in the intensive care unit (ICU) increases the risk of death. A study was conducted among all Calgary health region (population approximately 1 million) adults admitted to ICUs for 48 h or more during a three-year period to investigate the occurrence, microbiology and risk factors for developing an ICU-acquired BSI and to determine whether these infections independently predict mortality. One hundred and ninety-nine ICU-acquired BSI episodes occurred during 4933 ICU admissions for a cumulative incidence of 4% and an incidence density of 5.4 per 1000 ICU days. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (18%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11%), and Enterococcus faecalis (8%); 12% of infections were due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Admission to the regional neurosurgery/trauma ICU [odds ratio (OR) 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-3.90] and increasing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (OR 1.05 per point, 95% CI 1.03-1.07) were associated with higher risk, whereas a surgical diagnosis (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52-0.93) was associated with lower risk of developing ICU-acquired BSI in logistic regression analysis. The crude in-hospital death rate was 45% for patients with ICU-acquired BSI compared with 21% for those without (P