The purpose of the study was to examine the 7-year stability of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in the Canadian population.
The sample included 1,503 participants 7-69 years of age from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey who were remeasured in Campbell's Survey of 1988. Both SBP and DBP were adjusted for the effects of body mass index (BMI) using regression procedures.
Interage correlations from baseline to follow-up ranged from -0.17 to 0.61 for SBP and from -0.22 to 0. 51 for DBP. With few exceptions, correlations were positive and significant, and were highest and most consistent in adulthood. Further, between 27 and 39% of participants in the upper or lower quintiles in 1981 remained there in 1988. There were few differences in adiposity between those who remained in the upper or lower quintiles and those who did not. One exception was that males who remained in the upper quintile of SBP had greater values for BMI, sum of skinfolds, and waist circumference at baseline. Among adults, the best predictor of future blood pressure was baseline blood pressure, which accounted for between 12 and 34% of the variance in follow-up blood pressure, followed by age, follow-up BMI, and, in females, baseline physical activity levels.
Blood pressure demonstrated low to moderate stability over 7 years in Canada, and baseline level of adiposity was related to the stability of SBP in males.
We investigated the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and exercise training responses of resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). BP at rest and during submaximal (50 watts) and maximal exercise tests was measured before and after 20 wk of endurance training in 476 sedentary normotensive Caucasian subjects from 99 families. AGT M235T and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms were typed with PCR-based methods. Men carrying the AGT MM and MT genotypes showed 3. 7 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg reductions, respectively, in diastolic BP at 50 watts (DBP(50)), whereas, in the TT homozygotes, the decrease was 0.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.016 for trend, adjusted for age, body mass index, and baseline DBP(50)). Men with the ACE DD genotype showed a slightly greater decrease in DBP(50) (4.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg) than the II and ID genotypes (2.8 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.050). Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.022) interaction effect between the AGT and ACE genes was noted for DBP(50); the AGT TT homozygotes carrying the ACE D allele showed no response to training. Men with the AGT TT genotype had greater (P = 0.007) diastolic BP (DBP) response to acute maximal exercise at baseline. However, the difference disappeared after the training period. No associations were found in women. These data suggest that, in men, the genetic variation in the AGT locus modifies the responsiveness of submaximal exercise DBP to endurance training, and interactions between the AGT and ACE loci can alter this response.
The association between apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], fibrinogen, fibrinopeptide A (FPA) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was analyzed in Eastern Finnish men aged 50 to 60 years. Apo(a) correlated directly with carotid bifurcation (r = 0.26, p = 0.001), but not with common carotid IMT. Men in the lowest quartile of apo(a) had thinner (p = 0.013) IMT in bifurcation [1.59 mm (95% CI 1.49; 1.68)] compared to the men in the highest [1.91 mm (95% CI 1.73; 2.09)] apo(a) quartile. The difference remained (p = 0.038) after adjusting for confounders. Plasma fibrinogen was not related to carotid IMT, whereas FPA correlated with common carotid (r = 0.21, p = 0.016) and carotid bifurcation (r = 0.21, p = 0.018) IMT. These associations abolished after adjusting for the confounders. The data suggest that apo(a) associate with carotid atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular diseases.
High body iron stores have been proposed as a risk factor for advanced atherosclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of early atherosclerotic changes, and their relation to conventional CHD risk factors and body iron status. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 206 men aged 50 to 60 years (6% random population sample). Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery was evaluated with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical analyses were performed separately for men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among all the study participants, 6.6% had IMT > 1.3 mm in the common carotid artery, whereas 53.8% had IMT > 1.5 mm in the carotid bifurcation. Respective values were 4.8% and 46.8% for those without CVD, and 8.5% and 62.2% for those with CVD. Mean IMT in the carotid bifurcation, the predilection site for atherosclerosis, was 1.85 mm (95% CI 1.72; 1.98) in the men with CVD, as compared to 1.65 mm (95% CI 1.56; 1.73) in the men free of CVD. Serum LDL cholesterol (beta = 0.26), saturated fat intake (beta = 0.20), blood haemoglobin (beta = -0.29), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.21) and smoking (beta = 0.19), jointly explained 23% of the variance in the carotid bifurcation IMT in the men without CVD. Neither serum ferritin, transferrin nor dietary iron levels were associated with carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. On the other hand, in the men with CVD, age (beta = 0.34) and physical activity (beta = -0.25) jointly explained 16.5% of the IMT variance in the carotid bifurcation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To test whether DNA sequence variation in 11 obesity genes is associated with maximum weight loss and weight regain over 6 years of follow-up in bariatric surgery patients of the Swedish obese subjects (SOS) intervention study.
A total of 1443 subjects were available for analysis (vertical banded gastroplasty: n = 966, banding: n = 293 and gastric bypass: n = 184). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the following 11 genes were included: ADIPOQ, BDNF, FTO, GNB3, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, NR3C1, PPARG, PPARGC1A and TNF. General linear models were used to analyze associations between the SNPs and maximum weight loss and weight regain.
The average maximum weight loss was 33.7 kg (s.d. 13.3; min -95.5 kg, max +2.0 kg), which was reached 2.2 (s.d. 1.6) years after the surgery. Subjects regained approximately 12 kg (range 0.0-51.4 kg) by year 6. After correcting for multiple testing, the FTO SNP rs16945088 remained significantly associated with maximum weight loss (P = 0.0002), as minor allele carriers lost approximately 3 kg less compared with common allele homozygotes. This association was particularly evident in the banding surgery patients (P
Erratum In: Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Jul;36(7):1016
To study 10-year changes in selected quality of life dimensions in a cohort of aging Eastern Finnish women.
Ten-year follow-up of a representative population sample.
The county of Kuopio in Eastern Finland.
In 1982, a representative sample (n = 296) of 50 to 60-year-old women was examined in the FIN-MONICA study. Ten years later, 241 of the participants were re-examined.
Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Self-rated health, self-rated physical fitness, frequency of leisure time physical activity, functional capacity, reported symptoms, occurrence of diseases, and satisfaction with family life and economic situation were measured. In 1992, total life satisfaction at that moment and 5 years earlier were also assessed.
The self-rated health assessment remained unchanged. During the 10 years from 1982 to 1992, the proportion of women who reported diagnosed cardiopulmonary diseases increased; angina pectoris, in particular, increased from 6% to 20%. However, even though their running ability had decreased, the number of women rating their physical fitness as good or fairly good increased from 23% to 32%. The participants reported significantly less headache and feelings of exhaustion than they had 10 years earlier. Average satisfaction with their economic situation increased, and satisfaction with family life remained the same. Thirty-seven percent of the women rated their current life situation as better than 5 years previously, 29% felt that it had remained the same, and 34% indicated that it had become worse during the past 5 years.
These data suggest that some quality of life dimensions may improve during aging in postmenopausal women.
The associations of serum lipoproteins and habitual diet to factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) were analysed in 119 middle-aged men. FVIIc was measured by one-stage clotting assay, cholesterol and triglycerides enzymatically, serum apolipoproteins (apo) immunoturbidimetrically and habitual diet using four-day food records. ApoB, cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA-II, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat correlated directly to FVIIc (p 38 E%), in the middle tertile FVIIc increased gradually from low to high fat intake, whereas in the highest apoB tertile FVIIc was not related to dietary fat (p = 0.038 for age-adjusted interaction). The present data demonstrate a direct relation between apoB and FVIIc in middle-aged men. Low fat diet seem to associate to decreased FVIIc especially in subjects in the lower end of the apoB distribution.
Familial risk ratios for high blood pressure were estimated in a representative sample of the Canadian population. The sample consisted of 14,069 participants 7-69 years of age from 5,753 families participating in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. Resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were adjusted for the effects of body mass index using regression procedures. Varying degrees of high blood pressure were defined as the 75(th), 85(th), and 95(th) percentiles of age- and sex-specific values. Age- and sex-standardized risk ratios (SRRs) were calculated comparing the prevalences in the general population to those in spouses and first-degree relatives of probands with high blood pressure. SRRs for the 95(th) percentile were, for SBP and DBP, respectively, 1.37 and 1.45 in spouses and 1.33 and 2.36 in first-degree relatives of probands. SRRs decrease with decreasing percentile cut-offs used to define high blood pressure (95(th) > 85(th) > 75(th)), and SRRs are generally higher in first-degree relatives than in spouses, particularly for DBP. The results indicate significant familial risk for high blood pressure in the Canadian population, and the pattern of SRRs suggests that genetic factors may be responsible for a portion of the risk.
Blood pressure (BP), an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, is a complex trait with multiple genetic etiologies. While some loci affecting BP variation are known (eg, angiotensinogen), there are likely to be novel signals that can be detected with a genome scan approach.
A genome-wide scan was performed in 125 random and 81 obese families participating in the Québec Family Study. A multipoint variance-components linkage analysis of 420 markers (353 microsatellites and 67 restriction fragment length polymorphisms) revealed several signals (P:
Comment In: Circulation. 2000 Oct 17;102(16):1877-811034931
To examine the relation between adiposity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in normal weight (NW) individuals.
Cross-sectional study using the sample of white people, aged from 17 to 60 y from the Québec Family Study and the Heritage Family Study. NW subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m(2) (181 males and 265 females) and overweight (OW) subjects with a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m(2) (133 males and 114 females) were retained for this study. NW subjects were divided into quintiles of each adiposity variable, then the quintiles and the OW group were evaluated for the presence of CVD risk factors. Using logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of risk factors for each quintile of each adiposity variable and the OW group was estimated relative to the first quintile in NW subjects. Mean values of adiposity variables were compared between the subjects with and without risk factors. In these analyses, age and study cohort effects were taken into account.
Percentage body fat (%fat) and fat mass (FM) measured by underwater weighing were available as adiposity variables. Risk factors included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose.
Wide ranges of values were observed for adiposity variables. HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose in NW males and HDL cholesterol in NW females were significantly correlated with all adiposity variables. For males, higher quintiles of adiposity variables in the NW group and the OW group tended to have higher ORs compared to the first quintiles for the risk factor variables. The fifth quintiles of all adiposity variables had the highest ORs (3.15 for %fat and 3.77 for FM) and they were significantly different from the first quintiles. OW males had ORs similar to those of the fifth quintiles for the risk factor variables. On the other hand, for females, the relatively linear associations were less clear in the NW group. In NW males, the subjects with at least one risk factor had significantly higher %fat and FM than the subjects without risk factors. In NW females, no significant difference was observed for these adiposity variables between the subjects with and without risk factors.
NW males with elevated adiposity had higher prevalence of risk factors than NW males with less adiposity and the prevalence in the former was rather similar to that seen in OW males. On the other hand, measures of adiposity added little additional information to the BMI classification of NW on CVD risk factors in females.