The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an on-going multicentre study of atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and young adults. We have collected risk factor data in the 21-year follow-up performed in 2001. The aims of this analysis were to examine the levels, secular trends and east-west difference in risk factors amongst young adults.
Population based follow-up study.
A total of 2283 participants aged 24-39 years in 2001 (63.5% of the original cohort).
Levels of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, blood pressure and smoking.
The mean serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in 24-39-year-old adults were 5.16, 3.27, 1.29 and 1.34 mmol L(-1), respectively. Total cholesterol (5.21 vs. 5.12 mmol L(-1), P = 0.046), HDL cholesterol (1.31 vs. 1.28 mmol L(-1), P = 0.027), systolic blood pressure (118 vs. 115 mmHg, P
To determine the independent associations of dietary preference for fat with obesity without the confounding by genetic effects.
Descriptive comparison of the responses of monozygotic twins discordant for obesity to questions concerning current and past preference for dietary fat, current overconsumption of fatty items and recalled food consumption compared to the co-twin.
The Research and Development Centre of the Social Insurance Institution, Finland.
Twenty-three healthy monozygotic twin pairs who were discordant for obesity (BMI difference at least 3 kg/m(2)).
Obesity status of the twin, as a function of the current and recalled dietary preferences and selected psychosocial variables.
The obese twins reported current preference for fatty foods three times more frequently than the lean co-twin. Moreover, when comparing recalled taste for fat at the time the twins left their parental homes, both the obese and lean co-twins consistently recalled that the obese twin had greater preference for fatty foods in young adulthood, and that the lean twin had less. Psychological characteristics of lean and obese co-twins did not differ.
Acquired preference for fatty foods is associated with obesity, independent of genetic background. Modification of fat preferences may be an important step in the prevention of obesity in the general population.
We present fractile data on serum lipids and apolipoproteins A-l and B for children and young adults from the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study cohort of 1986. The sample comprised 2370 fasting children and young adults (1114 males and 1256 females) aged 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 years. The determinations were performed in duplicate with standard methods. LDL-cholesterol values were calculated. The limits for clearly pathological values (exceeding the 97.5th percentile) irrespective of age and gender were 7.5 mmol/l, 5.0 mmol/l, 3.5 mmol/l and 1.4 g/l for serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, respectively. Corresponding values (below the 2.5th percentile) for HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-l, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol were 0.80 mmol/l, 1.0 mg/l, 0.20 mmol/l and 0.70 mmol/l, respectively. Approximately 79%, 33% and 7% of males had serum total cholesterol values greater than 4.0 mmol, 5.0 mmol/l and 6.0 mmol/l, respectively. Corresponding percentages for females were 87%, 43% and 10%. However, age-related differences were marked. The prevalence of values, e.g. greater than 6 mmol/l according to age, ranged from 6 to 13% in females and from 3 to 12% in males, emphasizing the need for age-specific reference values. Additionally, postpubertal values for total and LDL-cholesterol tended to be slightly lower compared to prepubertal values, indicating that the reference values for adults do not apply to adolescents and young adults. The age-related changes in lipid levels were evident in each fractile and were especially accentuated in higher fractiles. Fluctuations with age were more pronounced in males than in females. These results are intended to be applied as reference values for diagnosing dyslipidemias.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism is a genetic determinant of plasma lipid levels and of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We determined the apoE phenotypes and plasma lipid levels in 1577 youths aged 3 to 18 years in 1980. The subjects were randomly selected from five areas of Finland. ApoE phenotyping was performed directly from plasma by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. The apoE allele frequencies in the population sample were epsilon 2 = 0.039, epsilon 3 = 0.767, and epsilon 4 = 0.194. There were no differences in the apoE phenotype distribution between East and West Finland or between sexes. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B increased with apoE phenotype in the order of E2/2, E3/2, E4/2, E3/3, E4/3, and E4/4. This increase was already seen in 3-year-old children; it was observed in both sexes, but was clearer in males than in females. The mean levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, triglyceride, Lp[a] lipoprotein, and the activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase did not differ between the apoE phenotypes. The observed differences in serum cholesterol remained fairly stable during the 6-year follow-up from 1980 to 1986, while the mean serum cholesterol concentration in the whole study population decreased by 6.3%. This study confirms the reported higher frequency of the epsilon 4 allele in Finns as compared to most other populations; this may contribute to the high rates of CHD in Finland as compared to most other populations. The results do not, however, explain the higher rate of CHD in East Finland in comparison to the western part of the country.
Association between serum lipids and apolipoprotein E phenotype is influenced by diet in a population-based sample of free-living children and young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a genetic determinant of coronary heart disease and lipid levels in several populations. We studied whether the association of apoE alleles with serum lipids varies with diet in a population of free-living young Finns. One thousand twelve subjects, aged 9-24 years, were studied as a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 1986. Serum lipid concentrations and apoE phenotypes were determined, and the composition of the diet was assessed by the 48-h recall method. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SAFA, g/1000 kcal) and cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal). Group one (high SAFA-cholesterol group) was formed from subjects belonging to the highest tertiles of both cholesterol and SAFA intakes (n = 175); group two (middle SAFA-cholesterol group) consisted of subjects belonging to the middle respective tertiles (n = 119); and group three (low SAFA-cholesterol group) consisted of subjects belonging to the lowest respective tertiles (n = 192). The statistical significance of the association of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration with apoE phenotype increased from the low SAFA-cholesterol group (P = 0.024 for total cholesterol and P = 0.015 for LDL-cholesterol, respectively) to the high SAFA-cholesterol group (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.00073, respectively). The middle SAFA-cholesterol group fell between these two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and the Xbal restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the gene for apolipoprotein B (apoB) have both been shown to be associated with plasma lipid concentration. We studied the combined effect of these gene polymorphisms on serum cholesterol concentrations in 300 subjects aged nine to 18 years. In three way ANOVA, there was a statistically significant interaction between the effects of apoE phenotype and gender on serum cholesterol (P = 0.009). Therefore, males and females were analysed separately by two way ANOVA: there was no interaction between the effects of apoE phenotype and apoB Xbal polymorphism in either gender. In females, there were independent effects of both the apoE phenotype (P = 0.020) and the apoB Xbal genotype (P = 0.037) on serum cholesterol, but in males these effects were not statistically significant. These data suggest that variations at the apolipoprotein B and E gene locus play a role in the determination of serum cholesterol concentration in young female Finns.
To study whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism or serum homocysteine concentration is associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), carotid artery compliance (CAC) or brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in a healthy Finnish adult population.
Cross-sectional data obtained in 2001 for the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study were used. Carotid artery IMT, CAC and brachial FMD were measured by ultrasound and serum homocysteine concentrations using a commercial immunoassay kit. We studied 1,440 subjects (aged 24-39 years). Genotyping was performed using the 5' nuclease TaqMan assay.
Homocysteine values differed between genotypes in women and men (ANOVA, p
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) and its risk factors in non-insulin-dependent diabetic and nondiabetic subjects was carried out from 1982 to 1984 in East Finland (Kuopio) and West Finland (Turku), two areas known to differ markedly in prevalence of ASVD in the nondiabetic population. A total of 510 diabetic and 649 nondiabetic subjects aged 45-64 yr were examined in East Finland and 549 diabetic and 724 nondiabetic subjects of the same age in West Finland. In both areas and in both sexes the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and intermittent claudication was higher in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects. Both in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects the prevalence of ASVD was higher in East Finland than in West Finland. In men, the East-West difference in the prevalence of symptomatic CHD and claudication was greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects. In both areas and in both sexes the serum lipid pattern was more atherogenic and hypertension was more frequent in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects. In both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, serum total-cholesterol level was somewhat higher and hypertension was more frequent in East Finland than in West Finland. The East-West difference in serum total-cholesterol was greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects. In multiple logistic analyses including cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes status, and area of residence, residence in East Finland was found to be, in addition to diabetes, a strong independent factor associated with CHD, particularly in men.
The prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) and its risk factors were investigated in 263 insulin-treated diabetic patients, ages 45 to 64 years, who were older than 30 years when their diabetes was diagnosed. The patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of endogenous insulin secretion capacity: Group A: glucagon-stimulated plasma C-peptide less than 0.20 nmol/l and Group B: C-peptide greater than or equal to 0.20 nmol/l. The age-adjusted prevalence of definite myocardial infarction was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (16.8% vs. 5.2%, p less than 0.01). A similar difference between Groups A and B was found for definite or possible coronary heart disease (54.6% vs. 32.9%, p less than 0.001) and stroke (9.3% vs. 2.0%, p less than 0.05). In multivariate analysis, high glucagon-stimulated plasma C-peptide level (greater than or equal to 0.20 nmol/l) was positively associated with definite or possible coronary heart disease independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. Our results indicate that among insulin-treated patients with a late onset of diabetes, the prevalence of ASVD is markedly higher in those with persistent endogenous insulin secretion (noninsulin-dependent diabetes) than in those with low or no insulin secretion (insulin-dependent diabetes).
The work situation of 66 male patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS) and who had been randomly allocated to receive cardiac rehabilitation (group R) was compared with the work situation of 59 similar patients allocated to receive only standard care (group H). The follow-up time was one year. The proportions of subjects working in groups R and H were 26% and 20% (p = ns) before the CABS, 45% and 34% (p = ns) 6 months and 56% and 38% (p = ns) 12 months after the CABS, respectively. The increase in proportion of subjects who worked was significant in both groups at both 6 and 12 months after the CABS (p