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Clinical validation of Canadian WAIS-III Index short forms in inpatient neuropsychiatry and forensic psychiatry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163951
Source
Clin Neuropsychol. 2007 May;21(3):434-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Rael T Lange
Grant L Iverson
Hendré Viljoen
Johann Brink
Author Affiliation
Department of Research, BC Mental Health and Addictions Service, Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada. rlange@bcmhs.bc.ca
Source
Clin Neuropsychol. 2007 May;21(3):434-41
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Female
Forensic Psychiatry
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Inpatients
Intelligence - physiology
Male
Memory, Short-Term - physiology
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Middle Aged
Perception - physiology
Reference Standards
Reference Values
Reproducibility of Results
Verbal Behavior - physiology
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
Recent research has provided some support for the concurrent validity of two-subtest short forms for estimating Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in the standardization sample (Lange & Iverson, in press). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using various two-subtest short forms to estimate Canadian WAIS-III Index scores in a clinical population. Participants were 100 inpatients from two large psychiatric hospitals in British Columbia, Canada. Using all possible two-subtest combinations, estimated VCI, POI, and WMI scores were generated by prorating subtest scaled scores and using the Canadian normative data (Wechsler, 2001). The agreement rate between full form and short form index scores was very high for all subtest combinations (range = 90-98%). Two-subtest short forms were useful for estimating VCI, POI, and WMI scores in this population.
PubMed ID
17455029 View in PubMed
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Development of the WAIS-III estimate of premorbid ability for Canadians (EPAC).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173414
Source
Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005 Dec;20(8):1009-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Rael T Lange
Mike R Schoenberg
Todd S Woodward
Tracey A Brickell
Author Affiliation
Riverview Hospital, Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada. rlange@bcmhs.bc.ca
Source
Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005 Dec;20(8):1009-24
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Canada
Educational Status
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
Intelligence - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
This study developed regression algorithms for estimating IQ scores using the Canadian WAIS-III norms. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample (n = 1,105). The sample was randomly divided into two groups (Development and Validation groups). The Development group was used to generate 12 regression algorithms for FSIQ and three algorithms each for VIQ and PIQ. Algorithms combined demographic variables with WAIS-III subtest raw scores. The algorithms accounted for 48-78% of the variance in FSIQ, 70-71% in VIQ, and 45-55% in PIQ. In the Validation group, the majority of the sample had predicted IQs that fell within a 95% CI band (FSIQ=92-94%; VIQ=93-95%; PIQ=94-94%). These algorithms yielded reasonably accurate estimates of FSIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in this healthy adult population. It is anticipated that these algorithms will be useful as a means for estimating premorbid IQ scores in a clinical population. However, prior to clinical use, these algorithms must be validated for this purpose.
PubMed ID
16087311 View in PubMed
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Differential effects of alcohol intoxication on S100B levels following traumatic brain injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146642
Source
J Trauma. 2010 May;68(5):1065-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Rael T Lange
Jeffrey R Brubacher
Grant L Iverson
Ric M Procyshyn
Suzana Mitrovic
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. rlange@bcmhs.bc.ca
Source
J Trauma. 2010 May;68(5):1065-71
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications
Analysis of Variance
Brain Injuries - blood - complications - diagnosis
British Columbia
Case-Control Studies
Diagnosis, Differential
Emergency Treatment
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Glasgow Coma Scale
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Nerve Growth Factors - blood - diagnostic use
Predictive value of tests
S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
S100 Proteins - blood - diagnostic use
Sensitivity and specificity
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Trauma Centers
Abstract
In an acute care setting, evaluation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often complicated by alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of the protein S100B as a biochemical marker for identifying brain injury in patients who are intoxicated at the time of injury.
The study participants were 160 patients who presented to a large urban Level I Trauma Centre in Vancouver, Canada. Patients were classified into four clinical groups (medical controls, trauma controls, mild TBI, and definite TBI) and two day-of-injury alcohol intoxication groups (i.e., sober and intoxicated). Blood samples were collected via venipuncture in heparinized tubes within 8 hours of injury. Measures of S100B concentration were obtained using a commercially available assay kit (Sangtec 100 Elisa).
For those patients who were sober at the time of injury, higher S100B levels were associated with TBI when compared with other physical injuries and general medical complaints. However, for patients who were intoxicated at the time of injury, there were uniformly low S100B levels across all clinical groups.
Although there seems to be a strong association between S100B levels and TBI, further research is required to establish the clinical role of S100B in patients with suspected TBI, particularly in patients whose clinical presentation is complicated by alcohol intoxication.
PubMed ID
20016383 View in PubMed
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Diffusion tensor imaging findings are not strongly associated with postconcussional disorder 2 months following mild traumatic brain injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133959
Source
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2012 May-Jun;27(3):188-98
Publication Type
Article
Author
Rael T Lange
Grant L Iverson
Jeffrey R Brubacher
Burkhard Mädler
Manraj K Heran
Author Affiliation
Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA. rlange@dvbic.org
Source
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2012 May-Jun;27(3):188-98
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Anisotropy
Brain Injuries - complications - diagnosis
British Columbia
Case-Control Studies
Corpus Callosum - injuries - pathology
Diffusion Tensor Imaging - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Male
Middle Aged
Monitoring, Physiologic - methods
Neuropsychological Tests
Post-Concussion Syndrome - diagnosis - etiology
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sickness Impact Profile
Time Factors
Trauma Centers
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine the relation between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corpus callosum and postconcussion symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI).
Sixty patients with MTBI and 34 patients with orthopedic/soft-tissue injuries (Trauma Controls) prospectively enrolled from consecutive admissions to a level 1 trauma center.
Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner at 6 to 8 weeks postinjury. Participants also completed a postconcussion symptom checklist. The MTBI group was divided into 2 subgroups based on the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision symptom criteria for postconcussion disorder (PCD): PCD Present (n = 21), PCD Absent (n = 39).
Measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum. Participants also completed the British Columbia Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory.
The MTBI group reported more postconcussion symptoms than the trauma controls. There were no significant differences between MTBI and trauma control groups on all DTI measures. In the MTBI sample, there were no significant differences on all DTI measures between those who did and did not meet the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision research criteria for postconcussion disorder.
These data do not support an association between white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and self-reported postconcussion syndrome 6 to 8 weeks post-MTBI.
PubMed ID
21642855 View in PubMed
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Effects of an education training program on attitudes to electroconvulsive therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163177
Source
J ECT. 2007 Jun;23(2):82-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Karen Oldewening
Rael T Lange
Sharon Willan
Carrie Strangway
Nirmal Kang
Grant L Iverson
Author Affiliation
Riverview Hospital, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
J ECT. 2007 Jun;23(2):82-8
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
British Columbia
Chi-Square Distribution
Education, Nursing
Educational Measurement
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nurses' Aides - education
Psychiatry - education
Questionnaires
Abstract
Widespread negative attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are present in the general public and among heath care professionals. However, there is evidence to suggest that clinical experience and knowledge of ECT positively improve attitudes toward this treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ECT education training program on attitudes toward ECT. Participants were 73 student nurses (91.8% women) and 21 care aid students (81.0% women) undertaking a 6-week rotation in psychiatry at a large provincial psychiatric hospital in British Columbia, Canada. The ECT education training program consisted of a brief lecture, viewing of an educational videotape, familiarization with the ECT equipment, and observation of an ECT treatment. Participants completed a short questionnaire pretraining and posttraining program. Attitudes toward ECT did not substantially differ between the 2 groups. For the entire sample, only 8.5% reported that they were well informed about ECT before the training session. More favorable attitudes were reported upon completion of the ECT education program compared with attitudes reported before training. These findings suggest that attitudes toward ECT increase favorably when individuals are provided with training and experience.
PubMed ID
17548976 View in PubMed
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Expanding the WAIS-III Estimate of Premorbid Ability for Canadians (EPAC).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169149
Source
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2006 Jul;28(5):773-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Rael T Lange
Mike R Schoenberg
Donald H Saklofske
Todd S Woodward
Tracey A Brickell
Author Affiliation
Riverview Hospital, Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada. rlange@bcmhs.bc.ca
Source
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2006 Jul;28(5):773-89
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Analysis of Variance
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Cognition - physiology
Demography
Educational Status
Humans
Intelligence - physiology
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Reference Standards
Regression Analysis
Wechsler Scales - standards
Abstract
Since the release of the Canadian WAIS-III normative data in 2001 (Wechsler, 2001), the clinical application of these norms has been limited by the absence of a method to estimate premorbid functioning. However, Lange, Schoenberg, Woodward, and Brickell (2005) recently developed regression algorithms that estimate premorbid FSIQ, VIQ and PIQ scores for use with the Canadian WAIS-III norms. The purpose of this study was to expand work by Lange and colleagues by developing regression algorithms to estimate premorbid GAI (Saklofske et al., 2005), VCI, and POI scores. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample (n = 1,105). The sample was randomly divided into two groups (Development and Validation group). Using the Development group, a total of 14 regression algorithms were generated to estimate GAI, VCI, and POI scores by combining subtest performance (i.e., Vocabulary, Information, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Completion) with demographic variables (i.e., age, education, ethnicity, region of the country, and gender). The algorithms accounted for a maximum of 77% of the variance in GAI, 78% of the variance in VCI, and 63% of the variance in POI. In the Validation Group, correlations between predicted and obtained scores were high (GAI = .70 to .88; VCI = .87 to .88; POI = .71 to .80). Evaluation of prediction errors revealed that the majority of estimated GAI, VCI, and POI scores fell within a 95% CI band (93.5% to 97.0%) and within 10 points of obtained index scores (72.3% to 85.6%) depending on the subtests used. These algorithms provide a promising means for estimating premorbid GAI, VCI, and POI scores using the Canadian WAIS-III norms.
PubMed ID
16723324 View in PubMed
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"Good old days" bias following mild traumatic brain injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147952
Source
Clin Neuropsychol. 2010 Jan;24(1):17-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Grant L Iverson
Rael T Lange
Brian L Brooks
V Lynn Ashton Rennison
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia and British Columbia Mental Health & Addiction Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada. giverson@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Clin Neuropsychol. 2010 Jan;24(1):17-37
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Bias (epidemiology)
Brain Injuries - diagnosis - physiopathology - psychology
British Columbia
Female
Humans
Male
Malingering - physiopathology - psychology
Middle Aged
Psychological Tests
Retrospective Studies
Self Concept
Statistics, nonparametric
Trauma Severity Indices
Abstract
A small percentage of people with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) report persistent symptoms and problems many months or even years following injury. Preliminary research suggests that people who sustain an injury often underestimate past problems (i.e., "good old days" bias), which can impact their perceived level of current problems and recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the good old bays bias on symptom reporting following MTBI. The MTBI sample consisted of 90 referrals to a concussion clinic (mean time from injury to evaluation = 2.1 months, SD = 1.5, range = 0.8-8.1). All were considered temporarily fully disabled from an MTBI and they were receiving financial compensation through the Worker's Compensation system. Patients provided post-injury and pre-injury retrospective ratings on the 16-item British Columbia Post-concussion Symptom Inventory (BC-PSI). Ratings were compared to 177 healthy controls recruited from the community and a local university. Consistent with the good old bays bias, MTBI patients retrospectively endorsed the presence of fewer pre-injury symptoms compared to the control group. Individuals who failed effort testing tended to retrospectively report fewer symptoms pre-injury compared to those patients who passed effort testing. Many MTBI patients report their pre-injury functioning as better than the average person. This can negatively impact their perception of current problems, recovery from injury, and return to work.
PubMed ID
19830628 View in PubMed
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Interview versus questionnaire symptom reporting in people with the postconcussion syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149119
Source
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2010 Jan-Feb;25(1):23-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
Grant L Iverson
Brian L Brooks
V Lynn Ashton
Rael T Lange
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. giverson@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2010 Jan-Feb;25(1):23-30
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Middle Aged
Post-Concussion Syndrome - diagnosis
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Self Disclosure
Abstract
To compare spontaneous, interview-based, postconcussion symptom reporting to endorsement of symptoms on a standardized questionnaire.
Sixty-one patients referred to a concussion clinic following mild traumatic brain injury.
Patients recalled their current symptoms and problems via open-ended interview and then completed a structured postconcussion checklist.
Open-ended interview and the British Columbia Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (BC-PSI).
On average, patients endorsed 3.3 symptoms (SD = 1.9) during open-ended interview and 9.1 symptoms (SD = 3.2) on the BC-PSI (P
PubMed ID
19680134 View in PubMed
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Is transition to disability pension in young people associated with changes in risk of attempted suicide?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269685
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Aug;44(11):2331-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
E. Mittendorfer-Rutz
K. Alexanderson
H. Westerlund
T. Lange
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Aug;44(11):2331-8
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Suicide, Attempted - economics - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people.
The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions.
The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002.
We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.
PubMed ID
24433877 View in PubMed
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Metformin treatment is associated with a low risk of mortality in diabetic patients with heart failure: a retrospective nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140847
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 Dec;53(12):2546-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
C. Andersson
J B Olesen
P R Hansen
P. Weeke
M L Norgaard
C H Jørgensen
T. Lange
S Z Abildstrøm
T K Schramm
A. Vaag
L. Køber
C. Torp-Pedersen
G H Gislason
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Niels Andersens Vej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. ca@heart.dk
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 Dec;53(12):2546-53
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - drug therapy - mortality
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies - mortality - prevention & control
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin - therapeutic use
Male
Metformin - therapeutic use
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sulfonylurea Compounds - therapeutic use
Survival Analysis
Abstract
The safety of metformin in heart failure has been questioned because of a perceived risk of life-threatening lactic acidosis, though recent studies have not supported this concern. We investigated the risk of all-cause mortality associated with individual glucose-lowering treatment regimens used in current clinical practice in Denmark.
All patients aged = 30 years hospitalised for the first time for heart failure in 1997-2006 were identified and followed until the end of 2006. Patients who received treatment with metformin, a sulfonylurea and/or insulin were included and assigned to mono-, bi- or triple therapy groups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the risk of all-cause mortality.
A total of 10,920 patients were included. The median observational time was 844 days (interquartile range 365-1,395 days). In total, 6,187 (57%) patients died. With sulfonylurea monotherapy used as the reference, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with the different treatment groups were as follows: metformin 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.98, p = 0.02), metformin + sulfonylurea 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.96, p = 0.003), metformin + insulin 0.96 (95% CI 0.82-1.13, p = 0.6), metformin + insulin + sulfonylurea 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15, p = 0.5), sulfonylurea + insulin 0.97 (95% CI 0.86-1.08, p = 0.5) and insulin 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.20, p = 0.0001).
Treatment with metformin is associated with a low risk of mortality in diabetic patients with heart failure compared with treatment with a sulfonylurea or insulin.
PubMed ID
20838985 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.