Forty consecutive patients with an extraabdominal primary tumor, later treated surgically for intraabdominal problems, were investigated. The most common causes of abdominal operations were intestinal obstruction (N = 17), intraabdominal tumor mass (N = 8), and intraabdominal hemorrhage (N = 5). The overall postoperative mortality was 25%, morbidity 48%, median survival 3 months, and cumulative 5 year survival 3%. The mortality after emergency procedures, 67%, was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than after elective operations, 18%. Conditions requiring enterostomy (N = 14) were associated with a mortality of 36%, whereas the figures in resected (N = 13) and bypassed (N = 7) patients were 14% and 17%, respectively. Wound infection (N = 5) and pulmonary infection (N = 5) were the most common complications, and pulmonary infection was fatal in three of the five cases. Of the patients, 22 (55%) were discharged from hospital to their home; ten (25%) of them had postoperatively a 3 month relief of cancer symptoms and four (10%) a 6 month relief. Nine patients (25%) have survived for over 1 year and one (3%) for over 5 years. It is concluded that abdominal procedures seldom prevent further cancer growth within these patients and that symptoms are relieved only in one in every four patients. According to strict criteria, these operations are useful and can add to patient comfort.
T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) is a transcription factor regulating the commitment of T helper (Th) cells by driving the cells into the Th1 direction. Abnormal Th1/Th2 balance may lead to complex disorders like asthma or autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have suggested that T-bet might be a candidate gene for asthma. This led us to screen 23 Finnish individuals for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the T-bet locus and study the association between the SNPs and high serum IgE level and asthma.
We screened all six exons, adjacent intronic areas and 2 kb of the 5'-flanking region from 23 individuals utilizing WAVE trade mark technology. To explore whether T-bet is associated in serum IgE regulation or asthma we genotyped the SNPs in a Finnish asthmatic founder population. The association analyses were made using haplotype pattern mining.
Fifteen novel SNPs were found in the T-bet gene. Within the Finnish asthmatic founder population, there was no association between T-bet SNPs and high serum IgE level or asthma.
The genetic variability in the T-bet gene does not play a role in the pathogenesis of human asthma. Our results provide a novel panel of SNPs in T-bet and will help determine whether the SNPs have a functional role in other T cell-mediated diseases.
On the basis of studies with animal models, the gene for the low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) (FCER2, CD23) has been implicated as a candidate for IgE-mediated allergic diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity, or related traits. Given evidence for genetic complexity in atopic disorders, we sought to study two European subpopulations, Finnish and Catalonian. We studied three phenotypic markers: (1) total serum IgE level; (2) asthma; and (3) specific IgE level for a mixture of the most common aeroallergens in Finland. Altogether, eight polymorphic markers spanning a region of 10 cM around the FCER2 gene on chromosome 19p13 were analyzed in 124 families. The physical order of the markers and the location of the FCER2 gene were confirmed by using radiation hybrids. The allele and haplotype association study showed a suggestive haplotype association (significance of p
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in persons with previously diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance and to characterize associations between components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study cohort.
Two hundred and sixty-eight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, but not diagnosed with diabetes during follow-up, were studied for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. At the second annual follow-up visit after the end of lifestyle intervention, we performed deep-breathing and active orthostatic tests to detect possible parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction. To describe metabolic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test and assessments for HbA(1c,) serum lipids and blood pressure were carried out.
Prevalence of parasympathetic dysfunction was 25% and prevalence of sympathetic dysfunction was 6%, with no difference between the former intervention and control group participants or between men and women. Subjects with parasympathetic dysfunction were older, more obese (weight, waist circumference, body mass index) and had higher triglyceride concentration compared with those with normal parasympathetic function (P
Increasing evidence supports the importance of socioeconomic factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with arterial stiffness in adulthood has not been reported. Our aim was to determine whether higher childhood family-level SES is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. The analyses were performed using data gathered within the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The sample comprised 2566 participants who had data concerning family SES at ages 3 to 18 years in 1980 and arterial pulse wave velocity and carotid artery distensibility measured 21 or 27 years later in adulthood. Higher family SES in childhood was associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood; carotid artery distensibility being higher (ß value±SE, 0.029±0.0089%/10 mm Hg; P=0.001) and pulse wave velocity lower (ß value±SE, -0.062±0.022 m/s; P=0.006) among those with higher family SES in a multivariable analysis adjusted with age, sex, and conventional childhood cardiometabolic risk factors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for participant's SES in adulthood (ß value±SE, 0.026±0.010%/10 mm Hg; P=0.01 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.048±0.023 m/s; P=0.04 for pulse wave velocity) but attenuated after adjustment for adulthood cardiometabolic risk factors (ß value±SE, 0.015±0.008%/10 mm Hg; P=0.08 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.019±0.02 m/s; P=0.38 for pulse wave velocity). In conclusion, we observed an association between higher family SES in childhood and lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. Our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children from low SES families to prevent cardiometabolic diseases primordially.
Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood.
The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18?years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31?years (N?=?1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (ß?±?SE -3.6?±?0.99,p?
We prospectively examined whether family socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes in adulthood.
The sample comprised 2,250 participants from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort. Participants were 3-18 years old at baseline (mean age 10.6 years), and they were followed for 31 years. SES was characterized as reported annual income of the family and classified on an 8-point scale.
For each 1-unit increase in family SES in childhood, the risk for adult MetS decreased (risk ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.94 [0.90-0.98]; P = 0.003) when adjusted for age, sex, childhood cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, systolic blood pressure, insulin, and BMI), childhood physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The association remained after adjustment for participants' own SES in adulthood (0.95 [0.91-0.99]; P = 0.005). A similar association was seen between childhood SES and the risk of having either adult IFG or type 2 diabetes (0.96 [0.92-0.99]; P = 0.01, age and sex adjusted). This association became nonsignificant after adjustment for childhood risk factors (P = 0.08). Of the individual components of MetS, lower SES in childhood predicted large waist circumference (0.96 [0.93-0.99]; P = 0.003) and a high triglycerides concentration (0.96 [0.92-1.00]; P = 0.04) after adjustment for the aforementioned risk factors.
Lower SES in childhood may be associated with an increased risk for MetS, IFG, and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Special attention could be paid to children of low SES families to decrease the prevalence of MetS in adulthood.
To investigate the associations of dietary factors with overweight, body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) among children.
Cross-sectional analysis of the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study among 510 children (263 boys, 247 girls) aged 6-8 years from Kuopio, Finland.
The children's weight, height, WC and HC were measured. Overweight was defined by International Obesity Task Force body mass index cutoffs. The BF% was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, nutrient intakes and meal frequency by 4-day food records and eating behaviour by Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.
Daily consumption of all the three main meals was inversely associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.75), BF% (ß -0.12, P = 0.012), WC (ß -0.16, P = 0.002) and HC (ß -0.15, P = 0.002). Enjoyment of food, food responsiveness and emotional overeating were directly associated with overweight (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.35; OR 4.68, 95% CI 2.90-7.54; OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.52-4.45, respectively), BF% (ß 0.13, P = 0.004; ß 0.30, P
Enhanced secretion of anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines is a characteristic feature in normal physiological pregnancy. In recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), however, defective production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and other Th2 cytokines has been shown in humans. Association studies have shown that a base exchange polymorphism (guanine-->adenine) at position -1082 of the IL-10 promoter is associated with differential IL-10 production. Since factors contributing to IL-10 production appear to be important in RSA, we studied the IL-10 genotypes of 38 Finnish women with a history of three or more consecutive abortions and 131 ethnically matched healthy controls. No significant differences in the -1082 allele or genotype frequencies were found between the controls and the RSA women. The present study suggests that the IL-10 -1082 (G-->A) polymorphism is not a major genetic regulator in RSA.