We wanted to study the effects of a 600 micrograms inhaled salbutamol dose on the cardiovascular and respiratory autonomic nervous regulation in eight children suffering from bronchial asthma.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study we continuously measured electrocardiogram, finger systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and flow-volume spirometry at baseline as well as 20 min and 2 h after the drug inhalation. The R-R interval (the time between successive heart beats) and SAP variabilities were assessed by using spectral analysis. Baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by using cross-spectral analysis.
Salbutamol significantly decreased the total and low frequency (LF) variability of R-R intervals as well as the high frequency (HF) variability of R-R intervals and of SAP. Salbutamol significantly increased the LF/HF ratio of R-R intervals and of SAP, minute ventilation, heart rate and forced pulmonary function in comparison with placebo. The weight of the subjects significantly correlated positively with baroreflex sensitivity and negatively with heart rate after the salbutamol inhalation.
We conclude that the acute salbutamol inhalation decreases cardiovagal nervous responsiveness, increases sympathetic dominance in the cardiovascular autonomic balance, and has a tendency to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in addition to improved pulmonary function.
A total of 57 subjects who had been exposed to mould dust in the tobacco industry were studied. Their working environment showed exposure to spores of different moulds, and 29 subjects (51%) showed antibodies against one or more of the microbes. Fifteen (26%) had work related respiratory symptoms. Eight (14%) showed slight radiographic pulmonary fibrosis. Spirometry showed a tendency toward restriction and obstruction, especially in small airways. Diffusion capacity was decreased in 18% of the workers. Three clinical cases of typical allergic alveolitis were also found. All this suggests that exposure of spores of different moulds (especially Aspergillus fumigatus) in the manufacture of tobacco products may induce symptoms and signs relating to extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1969 Jan;99(1):67-725762114
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978 Dec;4(4):275-83734388
Although pulse pressure (PP), heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) have been shown to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in various populations, their relationships have not been clarified. We examined these associations in two separate population-based samples of healthy middle-aged subjects. In population 1, data were obtained from 149 subjects (71 men and 78 women) aged 35-64 (mean 47.7) years, and in population 2, from 214 subjects (88 men and 126 women) aged 40-62 (mean 50.5) years. Increased 24-h ambulatory PP was related to decreased cross-spectral BRS independent of age and gender (beta=-0.28, P
The purpose of this study was to estimate the role of past asbestos exposure as a cause of radiographic small lung opacities and pleural abnormalities in the Finnish adult population.
The study was conducted in 1978-1981 and was based on a population sample (N = 8000) representative of the Finnish population aged 30 years or over. Full-size chest radiographs and a complete job title history were available for 3811 women and 3274 men. The radiographs were classified according to the 1980 classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses published by the International Labour Office and the work histories according to the probability of occupational asbestos exposure. Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risks of radiographic parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were calculated with the analysis of covariance according to the probability of asbestos exposure.
About 13% of the men and 0.8% of the women were classified as probably exposed to asbestos. There was more than 90% agreement in the repeated work history evaluations. The risk of small lung opacities was significantly increased among the probably exposed men [risk ratio (RR) 1.7 for ILO profusion category 1/1 or more and RR 1.6 for profusion category 1/0]. The risk of pleural plaques was increased both among the men (RR 3.0) and the women (RR 4.8) with probable exposure. The risk of thickened horizontal interlobar fissure was also increased among the probably exposed men (RR 1.7). Among the men, the etiologic fraction attributable to occupational asbestos exposure was about 30% for small lung opacities, about 40% for pleural plaques, and about 20% for thickened horizontal fissure. Among the women the etiologic fractions for asbestos were similar for pleural abnormalities, but much lower for parenchymal ones.
Occupational asbestos exposure has been common among Finnish men, and it plays a significant role in the etiology of both pleural and parenchymal abnormalities also at the level of the general population.
The role of smoking and an urban living environment in the etiology of radiographic pleural and pulmonary abnormalities was studied in a population sample that was representative of the Finnish adult population. A total of 7095 full-size chest radiographs were classified according to the International Labor Organization's 1980 classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses, with some modifications. The risk of bilateral pleural plaques was significantly higher among urban men (RR, 2.0) and women (RR, 3.8), even when adjusted for age and probability of occupational asbestos exposure and smoking. The risks of small lung opacities and abnormalities of the visceral pleura were not higher in urban areas. Risks of small lung opacities and thickening of the visceral pleura were positively associated with smoking, and the risk of small lung opacities was also higher among smokers than never-smokers in the population fraction with unlikely occupational asbestos exposure.