Measurements of nitrogen dioxide using the Palmes diffusion tubes in Uummannaq, Aasiaat, and Nuuk. all located along the west-coast of Greenland, have demonstrated that the levels of pollution at the most heavily impacted sites are comparable to levels in much larger towns in Denmark. The highest concentrations were, in general, observed near sites influenced by car traffic (peak concentrations of up to 16 ppbv), medium concentrations were observed in the residential areas (2 6 ppbv), and very low levels were found at the background locations in the town outskirts (1-2 ppbv). Observations of nitrogen dioxide concentrations less than 0.1 ppbv at a remote site, Akia, 25 km from Nuuk, indicate that, compared to local sources, long-range transport of nitrogen dioxide is not important in western Greenland.
We report on a 20-year-old man with the combination of two independent familial lipoprotein disorders: heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Familial hypercholesterolemia was diagnosed by elevated total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and family history. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a G --> A splice donor mutation in intron 3 of the proband's low density lipoprotein receptor gene was identified as the underlying molecular defect. This mutation was described previously as a receptor-negative founder mutation in Norway (FH-Elverum) and subsequently in 6 unrelated heterozygous English patients, creating a severe phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia. Type III HLP was confirmed by homozygosity for apolipoprotein (apo) E2 and an elevated ratio of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol to serum triglycerides (0.40; normal ratio about 0.20). The patient has unusual flat xanthomas in the interdigital webs of the hands which are normally not found in either disease. These dermatological findings might therefore be indicative of the rare combination of both disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in one individual.
A BsmI restriction enzyme polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. However, findings in other studies suggest the presence of considerable interaction by race, body size, and environmental factors. Therefore, we VDR BsmI genotyped 200 healthy perimenopausal Danish white women (mean age 50.8 years, mean calcium intake 900 mg/day) in a comprehensive, longitudinal, community-based population study. Bone loss was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using cross-calibrated Hologic QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 densitometers, with a mean follow-up period of 4 years (range 1-5 years). Despite a distribution of genotypes similar to that of other white populations (28% bb, 49% Bb, 23% BB), VDR genotypes were not associated with lumbar or femoral baseline BMD, subsequent bone loss rates, or biochemical markers of bone metabolism (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, urinary hydroxyproline, and serum osteocalcin). Controlling for body size, calcium intake, and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] did not alter this finding. The possible existence of a threshold effect was subsequently investigated by restricting analysis to women with low serum 25(OH)D3 levels or low calcium intake. VDR BsmI genotypes showed no significant impact on bone density or bone loss in healthy Danish early postmenopausal women, even when allowance was made for calcium intake, serum 25(OH)D3, and body size.