Objective evaluations of population's health belong to the most important tasks of the public-health science. Such evaluations made in respect to children are of extra importance. One must comprehensively understand the potentialities and abilities of the methods used for the purpose. A comparative evaluation of 387 children, aged 10, was based on the findings of medical check-ups and on questionnaires of their parents. 37.7% of children, who were evaluated by their mothers as having good health, were diagnosed by doctors as having a chronic disease, i.e. the diagnosis did not entail any life limitations for such children. 40% of those children, who were referred to by their parents as sick (poor health), were classified by doctors as belonging not to category 3 (chronic pathology) but to a category of healthier children (category 2). Below 10% of children, who were describe by their parents as having poor health, were among those who were put by doctors on the list of group 3 on the basis of medical check-ups. As for those children who had an actively displayed chronic disease with a pronounced clinical course, like bronchial asthma, ulcer etc., the opinions of doctors and of their parents coincided in a majority of cases. The comparative evaluations of children' health based on questionnaires of their parents and on medical check-ups exposed a certain coincidence and specificity of such evaluations since they are based on different approaches.
Results of social-and-hygienic research of the health condition of children belonging to different social-and-economic population categories are under discussion. The material family status is shown to directly affect the child's life quality, i.e. family life mode, psychological climate, scope and variety of food-stuffs, the possibility to have a regular and valuable recreation, educational regime, and the possibility to satisfy the spiritual demands of a child etc. The morbidity goes up among children as the family income decreases. The social-and-economic conditions are the uttermost and often decisive risk factor that provokes the development of deviations in children's health. The material stratification of society conditions, for children, differing degrees of access to public benefits that are involved in shaping the children's health, thus, entailing the disequilibrium in their health. A realistic pattern of children's health is needed as a data base to define an objective necessity of children in medical care of different types as well as their necessity in medical drugs and equipment.
Mortality trends were studied on the able-bodied population of Russia for the last decade, especially after 1994. A number of indices including results of sociological inquiries, showed improvement of health in old and middle-aged groups of the able-bodied population and deterioration of those indices in a younger group aged under 25 years, which requires a special analysis of working people's health.
Presents statistical and analytical data characterizing the modern status and perspective evaluations of the population health tendencies. Formulates the factors which should be taken account of when elaborating the strategy and prospects for development of medical care of the population.
Disease prevalence is analyzed on the basis of questionnaires distributed among the population of Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The following population groups were distinguished: aborigines (Yakuts and Russians) and newcomers, each with specific health status. The worst health characteristics were detected in Russians and newcomers. These health parameters form as a result of difficulties in life support in comparison with other population groups; medical care system requires special attention as a factor promoting health formation.