The epidemiological research of the nutrition and health status of the low-income people was held in five regions of the Russian Federation. The analyze of the nutrients, energy, micronutrients and of the main groups of foods consumption in the families with the different level of income was executed. The estimation of the nutrition status was made with using body mass index. The results of this work showed the need of the development of nutrition support in social service and using the medical criteria for this support in low-income people.
The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.
Energy requirements of drillers, derrick mounters and maintenance workers belonging to dispersed collectives were defined on the basis of materials available at the oil field Surgutneft named for the 50th anniversary of October. Energy requirements of the team workers were studied by the method of Douglas-Haldane during autumn-winter in the course of performing various production processes. Energy requirements were established as regards the operations made in the course of the basic technological processes. The budget of the working time was calculated in accordance with a rate-qualification manual. Energy consumption during out-of-work time was established by the method of individual questionnaires, followed by energy consumption calculation during various types of the work according to the generally accepted energy equivalents. The daily energy consumption with regard to the eight-hour work was found to constitute 3100-3660 kcal for drillers and the first assistant drillers, and 3700-3900 kcal for the second and third assistant drillers. The oilmen were distributed into groups in terms of the work intensity: group II--drillers, first assistant drillers and maintenance workers; group III--the second and third assistant drillers, assistant maintenance workers, and derrick mounters.
[Monitoring food consumption and nutritional status of Moscow schoolchildren in 1992-1994. 2. Anthropometric evaluation of nutritional status, effect of social factors on the character and status of nutrition].
In this part of the study the nutritional status of Moscow's schoolchildren was assessed by height and weight. The anthropometric data were compared with the CDC/WHO international growth references standards by ANTHRO version 1.01 software. The prevalence of low weight-for-age (Z-score
Surveys of dietary intakes and nutritional status of schoolchildren aged 10 and 15 years in Moscow were made during a period of rapid economic transformation, 1992-1994. It was part of multicentre study of schoolchildren dietary intake evaluation sponsored by WHO/UNICEF. Information on food intake was collected using two 24-hour recall interviews. The design of study was carefully elaborated by international group of nutritional epidemiologists. There was a slight change in food pattern with age, and some differences between boys and girls of 15 years old. Nutrient intakes in the groups studied did not change significantly during the period of study. Protein contributed about 12% and fat 29-32% of the dietary energy, and total energy intake was overall on a satisfactory level. 70% of the subjects had low intake levels of vitamin B2 and calcium compared with the chosen reference values. Milk and dairy products, fruits, juices and vegetables were consumed in small quantities and relatively infrequently. The consumption of bread and bread products, porridge, confectionery, meat and meat products were consumed more frequently and in larger quantities.
Daily diets studied in various groups of native and non-native population living in the Far North and East of Russia (Kamchatka, Chukotka, Sakhalin) are shown to be inadequate for the adult capable population. Chemical composition of food provides insufficient supply of vegetable oil, calcium, vitamins, magnesium.