Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p
A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 µmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 µmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency.
Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, a-Chlordane, ?-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p
The traditional diet of Inuit people comprises large amounts of fish and marine mammals that are rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Results from in vitro studies, laboratory animal experiments and population studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA intake and a high omega-3/omega-6 ratio exert a positive effect on bone health.
This longitudinal study was conducted to examine the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in Greenlandic Inuit women.
The study included 118 Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland), aged 49-64 years, whose QUS parameters measured at baseline (year 2000), along with PUFA status and covariates, and follow-up QUS measurements 2 years later (year 2002). QUS parameters [speed of sound (SOS); broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)] were measured at the right calcaneus with a water-bath Lunar Achilles instrument. Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA contents of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids were measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Relationships between QUS parameters and different PUFAs were studied in multiple linear regression models.
Increasing values of EPA, DHA and the omega-3/omega-6 PUFA ratio were associated with increased BUA values measured at follow-up (year 2002). These associations were still present in models adjusted for several confounders and covariates. We found little evidence of associations between PUFAs and SOS values.
The omega-3 PUFA intake from marine food consumption seems to have a positive effect on bone intrinsic quality and strength, as revealed by higher BUA values in this group of Greenlandic Inuit women.
Cites: Poult Sci. 2000 Jul;79(7):961-7010901194
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):69-8111209822
Aboriginal peoples affected by a nutrition transition and living at high latitudes are among the ethnic groups most at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of meeting predefined cut-off concentrations of vitamin D and to examine associated factors among James Bay Cree aged = 15 years.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of May and September from 2005 to 2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Anthropometrics were measured and additional information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits was obtained using questionnaires. A logistic regression model predicting vitamin D insufficiency (
We evaluated the seroprevalence of 10 zoonotic agents among the general population (15 years old and over) of Eastmain and Wemindji, James Bay, Quebec, in 2007. Overall seroprevalence rates were similar between the 2 communities. Nearly half the individuals tested (n = 251; 146 women, 105 men) were seropositive (n = 115) for at least one zoonosis. The highest seroprevalence rates were for Leptospira sp. (23%), Francisella tularensis (17%), and the California serogroup viruses (JC and SSH viruses) (10%). The other zoonoses (Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella sp.) had seroprevalence rates =5%; no exposures were identified to hantaviruses (Sin Nombre virus). Overall, seropositivity was related to age, gender, hunting, and owning a dog. There was no medical history suggestive of overt diseases. Nonetheless, physicians should consider these agents when confronted with difficult or confusing diagnoses. In particular, the bacterial zoonoses should be ruled out in individuals with high or prolonged fever.
Cree trappers and hunters are at risk for contracting infectious diseases conveyed by wildlife. We performed a study in a Cree community (Canada) to determine the seroprevalence of 8 zoonotic infections among hunters and trappers for evidence of exposure to Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Leptospira sp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Sin Nombre virus. A total of 50 participants (28 women and 22 men) were included in this study. Results indicate no or infrequent exposure to the Sin Nombre virus (0%) and 3 of the 4 parasites investigated (0-4%). Exposure to T. gondii (10%) and some bacteria appeared to be more prevalent (range, 4-18%). Overall, seropositivity was related to fishing, hunting, and trapping activities. Physicians should be aware of these infections in this population, particularly Q fever, tularemia, and leptospirosis.
The Cree communities of James Bay might be at risk of contracting zoonoses from their contacts with wildlife. Evidence of exposure to seven zoonotic infections, namely Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Leptospira spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Francisella tularensis, was sought in sera from 267 residents of Chisasibi (166) and Waskaganish (101). Study participants responded to questionnaires documenting socio-demographic characteristics and hunting and trapping activities. Associations were assessed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. High seroprevalence rates were documented for Leptospira spp. (23%), Francisella tularensis (18%), and Toxoplasma gondii (9%). Seroprevalence rates of less than 5% were observed for Coxiella burnetii, Echinococcus granulosus, and Toxocara canis. No subject exhibited serological proof of Trichinella spp. exposure in either community. Serological evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp. and T. gondii was greater in Chisasibi than in Waskaganish, while the T. canis seroprevalence rate was higher in Waskaganish than in Chisasibi. Handling of rabbits was associated with seropositivity for Leptospira spp. Statistical trends were also detected between the handling of ducks and exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, and between both handling animals without gloves and springtime hunting activities and Leptospira spp. seropositivity in Chisasibi and Waskaganish, respectively. A review of the medical records revealed few clinical events potentially related to zoonotic exposures. However, public health authorities and health care workers in these communities should be alert to the risk of these zoonoses.