Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort.
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources.
Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population ( n?=?4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs).
Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs.
HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Demand-Control Questionnaire, comparing the original Swedish questionnaire with the Brazilian version. METHODS We compared data from 362 Swedish and 399 Brazilian health workers. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed to test structural validity, using the robust weighted least squares mean and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator. Construct validity, using hypotheses testing, was evaluated through the inspection of the mean score distribution of the scale dimensions according to sociodemographic and social support at work variables. RESULTS The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the instrument in three dimensions (for Swedish and Brazilians): psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best-fit model was achieved by including an error correlation between work fast and work intensely (psychological demands) and removing the item repetitive work (skill discretion). Hypotheses testing showed that workers with university degree had higher scores on skill discretion and decision authority and those with high levels of Social Support at Work had lower scores on psychological demands and higher scores on decision authority. CONCLUSIONS The results supported the equivalent dimensional structures across the two culturally different work contexts. Skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions and the item repetitive work should be removed.
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Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health, particularly among young adults. Knowledge about how young people maintain their mental health while in a precarious employment situation is scarce. The aim of the study was to explore the meaning of precarious employment for young adults in Sweden and their strategies for maintaining good mental health.
In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 individuals (9 men and 6 women) aged 20-39?years in a precarious employment situation. Contact persons at union offices and at specific job-coaching organizations collaborating with the Swedish public employment agency in the city of Malmö were gate openers to reach informants. Analysis was based on constructivist grounded theory, implying an emergent design where data collection and analysis go hand in hand.
All informants had completed secondary school in Sweden, and one third had studied at the university level. A majority currently had jobs; however, they were mostly employed on an hourly basis and only a few had temporary full-time jobs. The analysis resulted in a core category "Diverting blame to stay sane," which summarized an emergent coping process involving individual resources and resources represented by the individuals' social capital. The developed theoretical model contained four main categories, "Facing reality," "Losing control," "Adapting," and "Fighting back," related to the core category.
The results implied a process where the challenges created by loss of employment-based rights required a coping process where the individual's social capital plays an important role. However, social capital is to a large extent determined by contextual factors, underlining the strong health equity aspect of precarious employment.
This study explored the interplay between work stress and socioeconomic position and investigated if the interaction of work stress and low socioeconomic position is associated with poorer health.
A representative sample of the Swedish working population, including 2,613 employees (48.7% women) aged 19-64 years, was analyzed. The health outcomes were poor self-rated health, psychological distress, and musculoskeletal pain. Work stress was operationalized as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, and socioeconomic position as occupational class. Interaction analysis was based on departure from additivity as criterion, and a synergy index (SI) was applied, using odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regressions for women and men.
In fully adjusted models, work stress, and in a lesser extent also socioeconomic position, was associated with higher odds for the three health complaints. The prevalence of poorer health was highest among those individuals jointly exposed to high work stress and low occupational class, with ORs ranging from 1.94 to 6.77 (95%CI 1.01-18.65) for poor self-rated health, 2.42-8.44 (95%CI 1.28-27.06) for psychological distress and 1.93-3.93 (95%CI 1.11-6.78) for musculoskeletal pain. The joint influence of work stress and low socioeconomic position on health was additive rather than multiplicative.
In a patient with clinically significant hyponatremia without other clear causes, thiazide treatment should be replaced with another drug. Data describing to which extent this is being done are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that may be of importance for the withdrawal of thiazide diuretics in patients hospitalized due to hyponatremia.
The study population was sampled from a case-control study investigating individuals hospitalized with a main diagnosis of hyponatremia. For every case, four matched controls were included. In the present study, cases (n = 5204) and controls (n = 7425) that had been dispensed a thiazide diuretic prior to index date were identified and followed onward regarding further dispensations. To investigate the influence of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, multiple logistic regression was used.
The crude prevalence of thiazide withdrawal for cases and controls was 71.9% and 10.8%, respectively. Thiazide diuretics were more often withdrawn in medium-sized towns (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.21-1.90) and rural areas (aOR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.40-2.34) compared with metropolitan areas and less so among divorced (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97). However, education, employment status, income, age, country of birth, and gender did not influence withdrawal of thiazides among patients with hyponatremia.
Thiazide diuretics were discontinued in almost three out of four patients hospitalized due to hyponatremia. Educational, income, gender, and most other sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were not associated with withdrawal of thiazides.
The objective of this research is to study the contribution of adverse working conditions to the association between income and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to analyze differences across prevalence and mortality outcomes. Cross-sectional data from the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions, 1996-1999 (N = 6,405), and longitudinal registry data for the period 1990-95 (10,916 CVD deaths) were used, including employed wage earners, aged 40-64. Working conditions were assessed through self-reports and imputed from a job exposure matrix, respectively. Multiple logistic and Poisson regressions were applied. There were strong associations between income and CVD. Those in the lowest income quartile had 3.6 (prevalence) and 2.1 (mortality) times higher risk of CVD, compared to those in the highest income quartile (with a gradient for the intermediate groups). In the survey, low job control and physical demands contributed 8-10% to the association between income and CVD prevalence. This contribution was 10% for low job control in the mortality follow-up. A small proportion of the association between income and the prevalence of or mortality from CVD is attributable to working conditions.
This study explored the association between income and stroke mortality in the total working population in Sweden and examined whether the associations differ by gender or for stroke subtypes intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) or brain infarction (BI).
This was a register-based study among nearly 3 million working women and men (30-64 years in 1990) with a 12-year follow up (1991-2002) for mortality from stroke (4886 deaths). Income was measured as annual registered income from work in 1990. Gender-specific Cox regressions were applied with adjustments for sociodemographic covariates.
The age-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of lowest versus highest income quartile was 1.80 (1.48-2.19) for any stroke, 1.68 (1.29-2.17) for ICH and 2.23 (1.53-3.22) for BI in women, and the corresponding figures for men were 2.12 (1.92-2.34), 2.02 (1.77-2.31), and 2.09 (1.77-2.46). Adjustment for covariates attenuated these associations to 1.69 (1.33-2.15) for any stroke and 1.56 (1.14-2.14) for ICH in women and to 1.98 (1.74-2.24) for any stroke and 1.77 (1.44-2.19) for BI in men. In contrast, adjustment for covariates amplified the estimates to 2.36 (1.52-3.66) for BI in women and to 2.05 (1.73-2.44) for ICH in men.
Risk of stroke mortality was highest in the lowest income group, with a gradient for the intermediate groups, in both women and men. The risk of mortality from BI was highest in women with the lowest income and the risk of ICH was highest in men with the lowest income.
The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds.
Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n?=?11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index.
Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence.
We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.
Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data.
A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18-100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004-2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise's legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.
Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13-15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11-20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17-23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries.
Mortality differences between self-employed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings.
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Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective.
We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (