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Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285319
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Oct;158:269-276
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Somrutai Poothong
Jacco Koekkoek
Luisa Lucattini
Juan Antonio Padilla-Sánchez
Margaretha Haugen
Dorte Herzke
Stig Valdersnes
Amund Maage
Ian T Cousins
Pim E G Leonards
Line Småstuen Haug
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Oct;158:269-276
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Beverages - analysis
Chromatography, Liquid
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Middle Aged
Norway
Nutrition Assessment
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Abstract
Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods.
To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results.
We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed.
The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6ng/day, 11ng/day and 0.78ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho=0.26, p-value=0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho=0.34, p=0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho=0.25, p-value=0.055).
We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.
PubMed ID
28662452 View in PubMed
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Geographical trends of PFAS in cod livers along the Norwegian coast.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282740
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177947
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Stig Valdersnes
Bente M Nilsen
Joar F Breivik
Asbjørn Borge
Amund Maage
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177947
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The level of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was determined in North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) liver samples from 15 Norwegian fjords and harbors. Five harbors in the eastern part of Norway, six harbors in the western part and four harbours in the northern part. A total of 200 samples were analyzed for 16 PFAS. Determination of PFAS were carried out by LC-MS/MS following sample clean up by solid phase extraction and ultracentrifugation. The predominating PFAS was PFOS, which was found to be higher than the level of quantification (1.5 µg kg-1 wet weight) in 72% of the samples. The highest level of PFOS found was 21.8 µg kg-1 wet weight in a sample from Kragerø in the eastern part of Norway. A significantly higher level of PFOS was found in the eastern fjords and harbors compared to fjords and harbors in the western and northern part of Norway. Within the northern fjords and harbors elevated PFOS levels were found in Narvik, which may indicate a local source there. Variations in PFOS of the cod livers thus reflect differences in levels of pollution between the areas.
PubMed ID
28531177 View in PubMed
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Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268509
Source
Food Chem. 2015 Jan 15;167:409-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2015
Author
Kaare Julshamn
Stig Valdersnes
Arne Duinker
Kjell Nedreaas
Jan H Sundet
Amund Maage
Source
Food Chem. 2015 Jan 15;167:409-17
Date
Jan-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brachyura - chemistry
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Russia
Shellfish - analysis
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations.
PubMed ID
25149005 View in PubMed
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Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259246
Source
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2012;5(4):229-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Kaare Julshamn
Bente M Nilsen
Sylvia Frantzen
Stig Valdersnes
Amund Maage
Kjell Nedreaas
Jens J Sloth
Source
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2012;5(4):229-35
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arsenic - analysis
Diet
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Fishes
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Norway
Seafood - analysis
Abstract
The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (
PubMed ID
24786400 View in PubMed
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Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Inorganic Arsenic and Other Elements in Meat from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North East Atlantic Ocean.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283150
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017 Jun 02;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-02-2017
Author
Amund Maage
Bente M Nilsen
Kaare Julshamn
Livar Frøyland
Stig Valdersnes
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017 Jun 02;
Date
Jun-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Meat samples of 84 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) mainly from the Barents Sea, collected between 1 May and 16 August 2011, were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, lead, total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and selenium. The average total mercury concentration found was 0.15?±?0.09 mg/kg, with a range from 0.05 to 0.49 mg/kg. The molar ratio of selenium to mercury varied between 1.0 and 10.3. Cadmium content ranged from 0.002 to 0.036 mg/kg, while the content of lead in whale meat ranged from
PubMed ID
28577218 View in PubMed
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