To design a training intervention and then test its effect on nurse leaders' perceptions of patient safety culture.
Three hundred and fifty-six nurses in clinical leadership roles (nurse managers and educators/CNSs) in two Canadian multi-site teaching hospitals (study and control).
A prospective evaluation of a patient safety training intervention using a quasi-experimental untreated control group design with pretest and posttest. Nurses in clinical leadership roles in the study group were invited to participate in two patient safety workshops over a 6-month period. Individuals in the study and control groups completed surveys measuring patient safety culture and leadership for improvement prior to training and 4 months following the second workshop.
Individual nurse clinical leaders were the unit of analysis. Exploratory factor analysis of the safety culture items was conducted; repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the effect of the training intervention on perceived safety culture (three factors). Hierarchical regression analyses looked at the influence of demographics, leadership for improvement, and the training intervention on nurse leaders' perceptions of safety culture.
A statistically significant improvement in one of three safety culture measures was shown for the study group (p
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The provision of preventive services and continuity of care are important aspects of long-term care (LTC). A proposed quality indicator of such care is the rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). As the ACSC approach to identifying potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH) was developed for younger community-dwelling adults in the United States, we sought to examine its applicability as a quality indicator for older institutionalized residents in Canada.
ACSCs were identified in a linked hospital-based LTC and acute care administrative database at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario, Canada. An expert panel was then convened to assess the applicability of existing ACSCs to an older institutionalized population in Canada and to develop consensus-based revisions appropriate to this setting. The revised definition of PAH was then applied to the same linked database.
The proportion of hospitalizations categorized as a PAH using the original ACSCs was 47% (4177 of 8885). The panel suggested the inclusion of 2 new conditions (septicemia and falls/fractures) coupled with the deletion of 4 of the original ACSCs (immunization-preventable conditions; nutritional deficiency; severe ear, nose and throat infections; tuberculosis) that were rare hospital diagnoses in this population. Using the revised definition, 55% of hospitalizations (4874) were identified as potentially avoidable.
Changes to the original list of ACSCs led to more hospitalizations being categorized as potentially avoidable. Significant variation between LTC facilities and over time in our PAH indicator may identify areas for improvement in preventive services and continuity of care for LTC residents.
Remodelling the kitchen won't help the house with a weak foundation. The same holds truth in healthcare. We cannot solve quality and access problems or deal effectively with wait times unless primary healthcare the foundation of the system--is solid.
Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" of the yield of a multi-step survey study assessing views on health care among American emigres to Canada, a hard-to-reach population.
To sample this hard-to-reach population, we held a live media conference, supplemented by a nation-wide media release announcing the study. We prepared an 'op-ed' piece describing the study and how to participate. We paid for advertisements in 6 newspapers. We sent the survey information to targeted organizations. And lastly, we asked those who completed the web survey to send the information to others. We use descriptive statistics to document the method's yield.
The combined media strategies led to 4 television news interviews, 10 newspaper stories, 1 editorial and 2 radio interviews. 458 unique individuals accessed the on-line survey, among whom 310 eligible subjects provided responses to the key study questions. Fifty-six percent reported that they became aware of the survey via media outlets, 26% by word of mouth, and 9% through both the media and word of mouth.
Our multi-step communication method yielded a sufficient sample of Americans living in Canada. This combination of paid and unpaid media exposure can be considered by others as a unique methodological approach to identifying and sampling hard-to-reach populations.
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