Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been established as a safe and effective treatment option for trigeminal neuralgia. Some patients have contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the standard stereotactic imaging used for GKRS treatment planning. Computerized tomography (CT) imaging may be used as an alternative in this scenario. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of our patients treated using this technique.
Between August 2001 and November 2009, 19 patients with trigeminal neuralgia were treated with GKRS using CT-only planning. The course of the trigeminal nerve was determined based upon anatomical landmarks when the nerve was not directly visualized on the treatment-planning CT. Median dose used was 90 Gy (range 85-90 Gy). Follow-up data based on Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score and toxicity were obtained using electronic medical records and by telephone interview.
With median follow-up time of 18 months (range 4-36 months), improvement in quality of life after GKRS was reported in 17 of 19 patients. Freedom from BNI IV-V pain relapse was 82% at 24 months. By 3 months post-GKRS, 50% of patients were able to discontinue medications completely. Three patients reported numbness after GKRS; none of these patients described bothersome numbness. Use of contrast did not affect treatment outcome (P = 0.31).
Stereotactic CT-only treatment planning of GKRS for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is feasible and safe. Further studies are necessary to determine if the long-term durability of pain relief is comparable to that of MRI-based GKRS planning.
Intracranial neoplasms can cause pain similar to trigeminal neuralgia. Literature regarding radiosurgery for this is limited. We present a retrospective review of patients with tumor-related facial pain from benign lesions treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at Wake Forest University.
The primary objectives were to determine long-term pain relief and predictive factors for pain alleviation.
We reviewed 515 patients treated with GKRS for benign meningioma, vestibular schwannoma or trigeminal schwannoma between August 1999 and August 2010. Twenty-one eligible patients had tumor-related facial pain prior to GKRS. The median marginal tumor dose was 12 Gy. Long-term pain relief data were obtained by chart review and telephone interview.
The median follow-up for symptom evaluation was 3.8 years. Seventeen of 21 patients (81%) experienced a Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) score of I-III at 6 months following GKRS. Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from BNI IV-V relapse were 66% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years. No pain relapses occurred after 2 years.
GKRS of benign lesions is a noninvasive option for patients with tumor-related facial pain. Pain relief is modest, with the majority of pain relapses occurring within 2 years and approximately one half of patients maintaining relief beyond 2 years.
To determine factors associated with the durability of stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN).
Between 1999 and 2008, 446 of 777 patients with TN underwent SRS and had evaluable follow-up in our electronic medical records and phone interview records. The median follow-up was 21.2 months. The Barrow Neurologic Institute (BNI) pain scale was used to determine pre- and post-SRS pain. Dose-volume anatomical measurements, Burchiel pain subtype, pain quality, prior procedures, and medication usage were included in this retrospective cohort to identify factors impacting the time to BNI 4-5 pain relapse by using Cox proportional hazard regression. An internet-based nomogram was constructed based on predictive factors of durable relief pre- and posttreatment at 6-month intervals.
Rates of freedom from BNI 4-5 failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 84.5%, 70.4%, and 46.9%, respectively. Pain relief was BNI 1-3 at 1, 3, and 5 years in 86.1%, 74.3%, and 51.3% of type 1 patients; 79.3%, 46.2%, and 29.3% of type 2 patients; and 62.7%, 50.2%, and 25% of atypical facial pain patients. BNI type 1 pain score was achieved at 1, 3, and 5 years in 62.9%, 43.5%, and 22.0% of patients with type 1 pain and in 47.5%, 25.2%, and 9.2% of type 2 patients, respectively. Only 13% of patients with atypical facial pain achieved BNI 1 response; 42% of patients developed post-Gamma Knife radiation surgery (GKRS) trigeminal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis revealed that post-SRS numbness (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; P
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported to be an effective modality to treat trigeminal neuralgia.
To determine predictive factors for the successful treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with GKRS.
Between 1999 and 2008, 777 GKRS procedures for patients with trigeminal neuralgia were performed at our institution. Evaluable follow-up data were obtained for 448 patients. Median follow-up time was 20.9 months (range, 3-86 months). The mean maximum prescribed dose was 88 Gy (range, 80-97 Gy). Dosimetric variables recorded included dorsal root entry zone dose, pons maximum dose, dose to the petrous dural ridge, and cisternal nerve length.
By 3 months after GKRS, 86% of patients achieved Barrow Neurologic Institute I to III pain scores, with 43% of patients achieving a Barrow Neurologic Institute I pain score. Twenty-six percent of patients reported posttreatment facial numbness; 28% of patients reported a post-GKRS procedure for relapsed pain, and median time to next procedure was 4.4 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that the development of postsurgical numbness (odds ratio [OR], 2.76; P = .006) was the dominant factor predictive of efficacy. Longer cisternal nerve length (OR, 0.85; P = .005), prior radiofrequency ablation (OR, 0.35; P = .028), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 0.38; P = .013) predicted decreased efficacy. The mean dose delivered to the dorsal root entry zone dose in patients who developed facial numbness (57.6 Gy) was more than the mean dose (47.3 Gy) given to patients who did not develop numbness (P = .02).
The development of post-GKRS facial numbness is a dominant factor that predicts for efficacy of GKRS. History of diabetes mellitus or previous radiofrequency ablation may portend worsened outcome.
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported as a treatment option for multiple sclerosis (MS)-related trigeminal neuralgia.
To report the outcomes of a single-institution retrospective series of MS-related trigeminal neuralgia.
Between 2002 and 2010, 35 patients with MS-related trigeminal neuralgia were treated with GKRS. The median maximum dose was 90 Gy. Data were analyzed to determine the response to GKRS and factors that may predict for efficacy.
Of the 35 patients, 88% experienced a Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score of I-III at 3 months after GKRS. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 1-, 2- and 5-year freedom from BNI IV-V pain relapse were 57, 57 and 52%, respectively. Numbness was experienced by 39% of patients after GKRS, though no patients reported bothersome numbness. Several differences were noted between how the MS-related variant responded to GKRS and what has previously been reported for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. These include the observations that development of post-GKRS numbness did not predict for treatment response (p = 0.62) and that dorsal root entry zone dose did not predict for freedom from pain relapse (odds ratio 1.01, p = 0.1). Active smoking predicted for freedom from pain relapse (odds ratio 67.4, p = 0.04).
GKRS is a viable noninvasive treatment option for MS-related trigeminal neuralgia.