Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D =8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.
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The aim of this study was to test whether the association between self-rated health and mortality differs between educational groups in Norway, and to examine whether health problems and health-related behaviour can explain any of these differences within a previously unexplored contextual setting.
The study used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 84-86 (HUNT) with a 20-year follow up. The analyses were performed for respondents between 25-101 years at baseline (n = 56,788). The association between self-rated health and mortality was tested using Cox regression.
The results indicate that although self-rated health is associated with mortality there is no difference in the association between self-rated health and mortality between educational groups. Introducing health-related variables did not have an impact on the result.
Given the small educational differences in the association between self-rated health and mortality, this supports the reliability of self-reported health as a measurement for objective health.
Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia.
Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2.
Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors.
The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.
To compare associations of conventional risk factors with cardiovascular death within couples and in the population as a whole.
We analysed baseline data (1995-97) from the HUNT2 Study in Norway linked to the national Causes of Death Registry. We compared risk within couples using stratified Cox regression.
During 914776 person-years, 3964 cardiovascular deaths occurred, and 1658 of the deaths occurred among 1494 couples. There were consistently stronger associations of serum lipids and blood pressure with cardiovascular mortality within couples compared to the population as a whole. For instance, for systolic blood pressure (per 20mmHg), the hazard ratio (HR) within couples was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.40) compared to 1.16 (1.12, 1.20) in the total population, and for diastolic pressure (per 10mmHg), the corresponding HRs were 1.16 (1.07, 1.26) and 1.11 (1.08, 1.13). Anthropometric factors (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio) as well as diabetes, smoking, physical activity, and education, showed nearly identical positive associations within couples and in the total population.
Prospective population studies may tend to slightly underestimate associations of these factors with cardiovascular mortality.
The Young-HUNT Study is the adolescent part (13-19 years) of HUNT, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Three cross-sectional surveys have been conducted: Young-HUNT1 (1995-97), Young-HUNT2 (2000-01) and Young-HUNT3 (2006-08). Major public health issues, including somatic and mental health, quality of life and health behaviours are covered. Young-HUNT was performed in schools visited by trained nurses. Data collection included self-reported questionnaires, structured interviews, clinical measurements and, in Young-HUNT3, buccal smears. The total response rates varied from 90% to 83% and the Young-HUNT database includes 17 820 teenagers. Some Young-HUNT1 participants constitute the baseline for two follow-up studies: a 4-year follow-up through adolescence to Young-HUNT2 and an 11-year follow-up into young adulthood to the adult HUNT3. Longitudinal data are also obtained by linkage of data from Young-HUNT to different national health registers. Linkage to family registers allows the possibility of studying genetic and environmental interactions through generations. Presently 20 PhD students are working with the data, 11 Young-HUNT based PhD theses have been completed and more than 50 scientific papers published.
To compare depression in a sample of the medically hospitalized elderly with elderly people participating in a population-based health study in Norway and further to study the odds for depression, controlling for demographic and health differences between the two samples.
This cross-sectional observational study evaluated 484 medical inpatients from rural areas and 10,765 drawn from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT-3 Study) including participants from rural and urban areas. All participants were elderly (=65 years) with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 80.7 ± 7.4 and 73.3 ± 6.3 years, respectively. Symptoms of depression were screened by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD).
The prevalence of symptoms indicating mild, moderate or more severe depression (depression score =8) was about the same in both groups. In regression analyses, adjusting demographic and health differences, the odds for depression was lower for the elderly in the hospital sample than in the HUNT-3 Study. Older age, male gender, perceiving general health as poor, having impaired ability to function in daily life, previous consultation or treatment for emotional problems and anxiety (anxiety score =8) were associated with increased odds for depression in the elderly independent of being hospitalized or not.
Surprisingly, we found the odds for depression after controlling for demographic and health variables to be lower in the hospitalized elderly individuals than in the elderly participating in the population-based health study. The health variables that were most strongly associated with an increased risk of depression were poor physical health and anxiety.
To compare the quality of life (QOL) in terms of overall life satisfaction in elderly medical inpatients and elderly persons in a large population-based study in Norway, and to study the odds for dissatisfaction, controlling for demographic, health, and social variables.
This cross-sectional observation study included 484 medical inpatients and 10,474 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT 3 Study). All participants were 65 years and older. Their life satisfaction was assessed with a single-item measure with seven response categories. For analytical purposes the variable was dichotomised; i.e. dissatisfied vs. satisfied with life.
In the logistic regression analysis controlled for demographic, health, and social variables, the odds for experiencing dissatisfaction with life was significantly increased in the hospital sample compared to the participants in the population-based study (OR 1.4). Poor general health, depression, and anxiety were strongly associated with being dissatisfied with life. Furthermore, disability, previous psychological distress, having no friends who could help, and not participating in activities were all associated with dissatisfaction with life.
The hospitalisation of the elderly has implications for the QOL in terms of life satisfaction, but general physical and psychological health seems to have an even stronger impact on life satisfaction. The prevention of the deterioration of physical and mental health in old age seems to be essential for a good life.
Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed.
This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires.
Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents.
The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.
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Norway is experiencing a rising life expectancy combined with an increasing dependency ratio - the ratio of those outside over those within the working force. To provide data relevant for future health policy we wanted to study trends in total and healthy life expectancy in a Norwegian population over three decades (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), both overall and across gender and educational groups.
Data were obtained from the HUNT Study, and the Norwegian Educational Database. We calculated total life expectancy and used the Sullivan method to calculate healthy life expectancies based on self-rated health and self-reported longstanding limiting illness. The change in health expectancies was decomposed into mortality and disability effects.
During three consecutive decades we found an increase in life expectancy for 30-year-olds (~7 years) and expected lifetime in self-rated good health (~6 years), but time without longstanding limiting illness increased less (1.5 years). Women could expect to live longer than men, but the extra life years for females were spent in poor self-rated health and with longstanding limiting illness. Differences in total life expectancy between educational groups decreased, whereas differences in expected lifetime in self-rated good health and lifetime without longstanding limiting illness increased.
The increase in total life expectancy was accompanied by an increasing number of years spent in good self-rated health but more years with longstanding limiting illness. This suggests increasing health care needs for people with chronic diseases, given an increasing number of elderly. Socioeconomic health inequalities remain a challenge for increasing pensioning age.