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A 25-year follow-up study of drug addicts hospitalised for acute hepatitis: present and past morbidity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7324
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2003 Apr;9(2):80-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Susanne Rogne Gjeruldsen
Bjørn Myrvang
Stein Opjordsmoen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. s.m.r.gieruldsen@iwoks.uio.no
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2003 Apr;9(2):80-6
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
HIV Seropositivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Hepatitis B - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Hepatitis C - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway
Rehabilitation, Vocational - statistics & numerical data
Skin Diseases, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Social Environment
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate present and past morbidity in drug addicts, 25 years after hospitalisation for acute hepatitis B or hepatitis nonA-nonB. The hospital records for 214 consecutively admitted patients were analysed, and a follow-up study on 66 of the 144 patients still alive was performed. At follow-up, 1 of 54 (1.8%) hepatitis B patients was still HBsAg positive. Twelve patients originally diagnosed as hepatitis nonA-nonB were all among 54 found to be anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) positive, and the total anti-HCV prevalence was 81.8%. Twelve (22.2%) of the HCV cases were unknown before the follow-up examination. Four (6.1%) participants were anti-human immunodeficiency virus positive, only 1 was on antiretroviral therapy, and none had developed AIDS. Other chronic somatic diseases were a minor problem, whereas drug users reported skin infections as a frequent complication. Forty-three patients (65%) had abandoned addictive drugs since the hospital stay. Serious mental disorders were reported by 19 patients (28.8%), and 17 (25.8%) regarded themselves as present (9) and former (8) compulsive alcohol drinkers. A large proportion of the participants were granted disability pension (39%), a majority because of psychiatric disorders, drug and alcohol abuse.
PubMed ID
12644734 View in PubMed
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Association analysis of schizophrenia on 18 genes involved in neuronal migration: MDGA1 as a new susceptibility gene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157931
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Oct 5;147B(7):1089-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-5-2008
Author
Anna K Kähler
Srdjan Djurovic
Bettina Kulle
Erik G Jönsson
Ingrid Agartz
Håkan Hall
Stein Opjordsmoen
Klaus D Jakobsen
Thomas Hansen
Ingrid Melle
Thomas Werge
Vidar M Steen
Ole A Andreassen
Author Affiliation
TOP Project, Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. a.k.kahler@medisin.uio.no
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Oct 5;147B(7):1089-100
Date
Oct-5-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cell Adhesion - genetics
Cell Adhesion Molecules - genetics
Cell Movement - genetics
Female
GPI-Linked Proteins
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Linkage Disequilibrium
Male
Middle Aged
Nerve Tissue Proteins - metabolism
Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules
Neuroglia
Neurons - pathology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Scandinavia
Schizophrenia - genetics
Abstract
Several lines of evidence support the theory of schizophrenia (SZ) being a neurodevelopmental disorder. The structural, cytoarchitectural and functional brain abnormalities reported in patients with SZ, might be due to aberrant neuronal migration, since the final position of neurons affects neuronal function, morphology, and formation of synaptic connections. We have investigated the putative association between SZ and gene variants engaged in the neuronal migration process, by performing an association study on 839 cases and 1,473 controls of Scandinavian origin. Using a gene-wide approach, tagSNPs in 18 candidate genes have been genotyped, with gene products involved in the neuron-to-glial cell adhesion, interactions with the DISC1 protein and/or rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. Of the 289 markers tested, 19 markers located in genes MDGA1, RELN, ITGA3, DLX1, SPARCL1, and ASTN1, attained nominal significant P-values (P
PubMed ID
18384059 View in PubMed
Less detail

Can learning potential in schizophrenia be assessed with the standard CVLT-II? An exploratory study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158202
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2008 Apr;49(2):179-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Anja Vaskinn
Kjetil Sundet
Svein Friis
Torill Ueland
Carmen Simonsen
Astrid B Birkenaes
John A Engh
Stein Opjordsmoen
Ole A Andreassen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo, Norway. anja.vaskinn@medisin.uio.no
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2008 Apr;49(2):179-86
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aptitude
Cognition
Female
Humans
Learning
Learning Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Male
Mental Recall
Neuropsychological Tests - standards - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Predictive value of tests
Psychometrics - methods - standards - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Schizophrenia - complications
Schizophrenic Psychology
Semantics
Social Behavior
Verbal Learning
Abstract
This study examined the potential of using the regular administration of a common neuropsychological test, the CVLT-II, to assess learning potential in schizophrenia. Based on List A trial 1 performance and the learning slope, a schizophrenia sample was divided into three learning potential groups (non-learners, learners and high-achievers) that differed in the use of learning strategies. High-achievers utilized more semantic clustering than learners and non-learners, and non-learners were less consistent in words recalled than the other two groups. This standard administration approach is a promising, time-saving alternative to the modified tests of learning potential used so far.
PubMed ID
18352988 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characteristics of patients frequently subjected to pharmacological and mechanical restraint--a register study in three Norwegian acute psychiatric wards.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257621
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2014 Jan 30;215(1):127-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2014
Author
Maria Knutzen
Stål Bjørkly
Gunnar Eidhammer
Steinar Lorentzen
Nina Helen Mjøsund
Stein Opjordsmoen
Leiv Sandvik
Svein Friis
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 4956, Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway; Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Department of Research and Education, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, P.O.Box 4956, Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: maria.knutzen@kompetanse-senteret.no.
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2014 Jan 30;215(1):127-33
Date
Jan-30-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Length of Stay
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychiatric Department, Hospital
Registries
Restraint, Physical
Retrospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
This retrospective study from three catchment-area-based acute psychiatric wards showed that of all the pharmacologically and mechanically restrained patients (n=373) 34 (9.1%) had been frequently restrained (6 or more times). These patients accounted for 39.2% of all restraint episodes during the two-year study period. Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds for being frequently restrained were 91% lower among patients above 50 years compared to those aged 18-29 years; a threefold increase (OR=3.1) for those admitted 3 times or more compared to patients with only one stay; and, finally, a threefold increase (OR=3.1) if the length of stay was 16 days or more compared to those admitted for 0-4 days. Among frequently restrained patients, males (n=15) had significantly longer stays than women (n=19), and 8 of the females had a diagnosis of personality disorder, compared to none among males. Our study showed that being frequently restrained was associated with long inpatient stay, many admissions and young age. Teasing out patient characteristics associated with the risk of being frequently restraint may contribute to reduce use of restraint by developing alternative interventions for these patients.
PubMed ID
24230996 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of psychiatric inpatients who experienced restraint and those who did not: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134890
Source
Psychiatr Serv. 2011 May;62(5):492-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Maria Knutzen
Nina H Mjosund
Gunnar Eidhammer
Steinar Lorentzen
Stein Opjordsmoen
Leiv Sandvik
Svein Friis
Author Affiliation
Department of Research and Education, Oslo University Hospital,Oslo, Norway. maria.knutzen@kompetanse-senteret.no
Source
Psychiatr Serv. 2011 May;62(5):492-7
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Female
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Inpatients
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Regression Analysis
Restraint, Physical
Retrospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
Use of restraint in acute psychiatric wards is highly controversial. Knowledge is limited about the characteristics of patients who are restrained and the predictors of use of restraint. This study examined whether restrained patients differed from nonrestrained patients in demographic, clinical, and medicolegal variables and to what extent the variables predicted use of restraint.
A two-year retrospective case-control design was used. The sample comprised all restrained patients (N=375) and a randomly selected control group of nonrestrained patients (N=374) from three catchment-area-based acute psychiatric wards in Norway. Data sources were restraint protocols and electronic patient files.
The restrained patients were significantly younger and more likely to be men, to reside outside the wards' catchment areas, and to have an immigrant background. Restrained patients also had more admissions and longer inpatient stays than nonrestrained patients and were more likely to be involuntarily referred and to have one or more of the following ICD-10 diagnoses: a substance use disorder, schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder, and bipolar disorder. Binary logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, immigrant background, and catchment area, indicated that the number of admissions, length of stay, legal basis for referral, and diagnosis each independently predicted the use of restraint. No interactions were found.
Use of restraint was predicted by multiple admissions, long inpatient stays, involuntary admission, and serious mental illness. Identifying patients at risk may inform the development of alternatives to restraint for these patients.
PubMed ID
21532074 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comorbid mental disorders in substance users from a single catchment area--a clinical study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137119
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:25
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Anne-Marit Langås
Ulrik F Malt
Stein Opjordsmoen
Author Affiliation
Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Kongsberg, Norway. anne-marit.langas@vestreviken.no
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:25
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Catchment Area (Health) - statistics & numerical data
Clinical Protocols
Comorbidity
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) - statistics & numerical data
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Drug Users - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Research Design
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - statistics & numerical data
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The optimal treatment of patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) requires an awareness of their comorbid mental disorders and vice versa. The prevalence of comorbidity in first-time-admitted SUD patients has been insufficiently studied. Diagnosing comorbidity in substance users is complicated by symptom overlap, symptom fluctuations, and the limitations of the assessment methods. The aim of this study was to diagnose all mental disorders in substance users living in a single catchment area, without any history of treatment for addiction or psychiatric disorders, admitted consecutively to the specialist health services. The prevalence of substance-induced versus substance-independent disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), in SUD patients will be described.
First-time consecutively admitted patients from a single catchment area, aged 16 years or older, admitted to addiction clinics or departments of psychiatry as outpatients or inpatients will be screened for substance-related problems using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test. All patients with scores above the cutoff value will be asked to participate in the study. The patients included will be diagnosed for SUD and other axis I disorders by a psychiatrist using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. This interview was designed for the diagnosis of primary and substance-induced disorders in substance users. Personality disorders will be assessed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Angst Hypomania Check List will be used for additional diagnostic assessments. The sociodemographic data will be recorded with the Stanley Foundation's Network Entry Questionnaire. Biochemical assessments will reveal somatic diseases that may contribute to the patient's symptoms.
This study is unique because the material represents a complete sample of first-time-admitted treatment seekers with SUD from a single catchment area. Earlier studies have not focused on first-time-admitted patients, so chronically ill patients, may have been overrepresented in those samples. This study will contribute new knowledge about mental disorders in first-time-admitted SUD patients.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21314980 View in PubMed
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A comparison of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in postpartum and non-postpartum mothers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45877
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2003 Oct;38(10):551-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Malin Eberhard-Gran
Kristian Tambs
Stein Opjordsmoen
Anders Skrondal
Anne Eskild
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Post Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. malin.eberhard-gran@fhi.no
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2003 Oct;38(10):551-6
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression, Postpartum - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of symptoms of anxiety and depression among postpartum as compared with non-postpartum mothers, and to estimate the impact of the postpartum period on the risk of anxiety and depression when adjusted for other risk factors. METHODS: A questionnaire survey approaching all women 18-40 years of age in two municipalities in Norway during the period 1998-1999 was conducted. A total of 2,730 women were included, of whom 416 were in the postpartum period. Only women with one or more deliveries (n = 1,794) were included in the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of anxiety and depression was lower in postpartum as compared to non-postpartum mothers. However, when controlling for other risk factors, the odds ratio for anxiety was 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.3) and for depression 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.9) during the postpartum period. CONCLUSION: The overall risk of anxiety appeared to be the same in both groups, whereas the risk of depression was increased in the postpartum group.
PubMed ID
14564383 View in PubMed
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Delusions are associated with poor cognitive insight in schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152910
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jul;36(4):830-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
John A Engh
Svein Friis
Astrid B Birkenaes
Halldóra Jónsdóttir
Ole Klungsøyr
Petter A Ringen
Carmen Simonsen
Anja Vaskinn
Stein Opjordsmoen
Ole A Andreassen
Author Affiliation
Section of Psychosis Research, Division of Psychiatry, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. john.engh@medisin.uio.no
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jul;36(4):830-5
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Awareness
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Hallucinations - diagnosis - psychology
Humans
Male
Norway
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Schizophrenia - diagnosis
Schizophrenic Psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the symptoms delusions and hallucinations measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and cognitive insight as assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) in patients with schizophrenia. The BCIS is based on 2 subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty, measuring objectivity, reflectiveness and openness to feedback, and mental flexibility. Overall cognitive insight was defined as the difference between self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. This cross-sectional study of 143 patients showed that the occurrence of delusions is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, reflecting low cognitive insight. Hallucinations in the absence of delusions were associated with high self-reflectiveness and low self-certainty, possibly reflecting more open-mindedness and higher cognitive insight. The present findings suggest that delusions are associated with low cognitive insight, whereas solitary hallucinations may be associated with high cognitive insight.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19176474 View in PubMed
Less detail

Development of the movement domain in the global body examination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133635
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2012 Jan;28(1):41-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Alice Kvåle
Berit Heir Bunkan
Stein Opjordsmoen
Svein Friis
Author Affiliation
Section for Physiotherapy Science, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway. alice.kvale@isf.uib.no
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2012 Jan;28(1):41-9
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biomechanical Phenomena
Discriminant Analysis
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Movement
Norway
Pain - diagnosis - physiopathology
Pain Measurement
Physical Examination - methods
Physical Therapy Modalities
Predictive value of tests
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - physiopathology
ROC Curve
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a new Movement domain, based on 16 items from the Global Physiotherapy Examination-52 (GPE-52) and 18 items from the Comprehensive Body Examination (CBE). Furthermore, we examined how well the new domain and its scales would discriminate between healthy individuals and different groups of patients, compared to the original methods. Two physiotherapists, each using one method, independently examined 132 individuals (34 healthy, 32 with localized pain, 32 with generalized pain, and 34 with psychoses). The number of items was reduced by means of correlational and exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha. For examination of discriminative validity, Mann-Whitney U-test and Area under the Curve (AUC) were used. The initial 34 items were reduced to two subscales with 13 items: one for range of movement and balance and one for flexibility. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and 0.87 for the two subscales. The new subscales showed very good to excellent discriminating ability between healthy persons and the different patient groups (p
PubMed ID
21682584 View in PubMed
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Dimensions of delusional experiences and their value as predictors of long-term outcome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162544
Source
Psychopathology. 2007;40(5):278-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Stein Opjordsmoen
Nils Retterstøl
Author Affiliation
Division of Psychiatry, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. s.e.o.ilner@ medisin.uio.no
Source
Psychopathology. 2007;40(5):278-81
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Disorders, Psychotic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Aged
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Delusions - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Humans
Long-Term Care
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Paranoid Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Patient Discharge
Prognosis
Psychopathology
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - therapy
Schizophrenic Psychology
Abstract
Delusions are categorized as present or not in classificatory systems, but can fluctuate in intensity over time. They are sometimes difficult to describe, and might be better conceptualized as continuous on a number of dimensions. The predictive value of dimensional ratings of delusions was studied.
Out of 180 first-episode psychotic patients who had been personally followed up after 30 years, a subsample of 41 was randomly drawn, 21 of the 180, 10 of those with GAS scores of 70 or more, and 10 of those with GAS scores of 30 or less at follow-up. They represented three different groups - a good outcome (n = 17), an intermediate outcome (n = 12), and a poor outcome (n = 12) group. Based on case histories at first presentation, scores on the Dimensions of Delusional Experience Scale were recorded.
Poor compared to good outcome patients had delusions at index admission characterized by more conviction, extension, disorganization, bizarreness and pressure. Intermediate outcome patients had scores in between, but closer to the poor outcome group.
Dimensional rating scales for assessing delusions might have predictive power, and consequently they should be used in future research, and if replicated these findings might have clinical implications.
PubMed ID
17622706 View in PubMed
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