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Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121827
Source
Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 14;109(5):920-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-14-2013
Author
Cecilie Kyrø
Guri Skeie
Steffen Loft
Kim Overvad
Jane Christensen
Anne Tjønneland
Anja Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 14;109(5):920-7
Date
Mar-14-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Avena sativa
Brassica
Bread
Cohort Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet
Female
Fishes
Fruit
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Malus
Middle Aged
Norway
Pyrus
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Secale cereale
Vegetables
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.
Notes
Erratum In: Br J Nutr. 2014 Feb;111(4):758-9
PubMed ID
22874538 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes--The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273886
Source
Nutrients. 2015 Oct;7(10):8633-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Sandra Amalie Lacoppidan
Cecilie Kyrø
Steffen Loft
Anne Helnæs
Jane Christensen
Camilla Plambeck Hansen
Christina Catherine Dahm
Kim Overvad
Anne Tjønneland
Anja Olsen
Source
Nutrients. 2015 Oct;7(10):8633-44
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - prevention & control
Diet - ethnology - standards
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables.
Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders.
Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5-6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61-0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53-0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence).
Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26506373 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258362
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):256-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Elvira V Bräuner
Steffen Loft
Anja Wellejus
Herman Autrup
Anne Tjønneland
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Author Affiliation
a Danish Building Research Institute, Construction and Health, Aalborg University , Copenhagen , Denmark .
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):256-68
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases - genetics
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - enzymology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Catechol O-Methyltransferase - genetics
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Denmark
Female
Genotype
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Humans
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Postmenopause - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Risk
Abstract
Exposure to PCBs may be an etiologic factor for breast cancer. The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes are involved in estrogen metabolism and PCB metabolism, both of which may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in genes regulating these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk. When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR?=?0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We found no statistically significant interactions between any of the PCB groups and CYP1B1 or COMT polymorphisms on the risk of breast cancer.
PubMed ID
23869875 View in PubMed
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Air pollution from traffic and cancer incidence: a Danish cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132837
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:67
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Zorana J Andersen
Martin Hvidberg
Steen S Jensen
Matthias Ketzel
Mette Sørensen
Johnni Hansen
Steffen Loft
Kim Overvad
Anne Tjønneland
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:67
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - chemically induced - classification - epidemiology
Nitrogen Oxides - analysis - toxicity
Residence Characteristics
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Vehicle engine exhaust includes ultrafine particles with a large surface area and containing absorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, transition metals and other substances. Ultrafine particles and soluble chemicals can be transported from the airways to other organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain. Our aim was to investigate whether air pollution from traffic is associated with risk for other cancers than lung cancer.
We followed up 54,304 participants in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health cohort for 20 selected cancers in the Danish Cancer Registry, from enrolment in 1993-1997 until 2006, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used modeled concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and amount of traffic at the residence as indicators of traffic-related air pollution and used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for potential confounders.
NO(x) at the residence was significantly associated with risks for cervical cancer (IRR, 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01;5.93, per 100 µg/m(3) NO(x)) and brain cancer (IRR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.25;4.19, per 100 µg/m(3) NO(x)).
This hypothesis-generating study indicates that traffic-related air pollution might increase the risks for cervical and brain cancer, which should be tested in future studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21771295 View in PubMed
Less detail

Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99386
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 May;19(5):1284-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Helle Bak
Mette Sørensen
Steen Solvang Jensen
Matthias Ketzel
Martin Hvidberg
Peter Schnohr
Anne Tjønneland
Kim Overvad
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 May;19(5):1284-91
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. The purpose was to investigate whether the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence, used as an indicator of air pollution from traffic, is associated with risk for lung cancer. METHODS: We identified 679 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry from the members of three prospective cohorts and selected a comparison group of 3,481 persons from the same cohorts in a case-cohort design. Residential addresses from January 1, 1971, were traced in the Central Population Registry. The NOx concentration at each address was calculated by dispersion models, and the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses was calculated for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), educational level, body mass index, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The incidence rate ratios for lung cancer were 1.30 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.07-1.57] and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.12-1.88) for NOx concentrations of 30 to 72 and >72 microg/m3, respectively, when compared with
PubMed ID
20447920 View in PubMed
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Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282438
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Apr;154:226-233
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Marie Pedersen
Zorana J Andersen
Massimo Stafoggia
Gudrun Weinmayr
Claudia Galassi
Mette Sørensen
Kirsten T Eriksen
Anne Tjønneland
Steffen Loft
Andrea Jaensch
Gabriele Nagel
Hans Concin
Ming-Yi Tsai
Sara Grioni
Alessandro Marcon
Vittorio Krogh
Fulvio Ricceri
Carlotta Sacerdote
Andrea Ranzi
Ranjeet Sokhi
Roel Vermeulen
Kees de Hoogh
Meng Wang
Rob Beelen
Paolo Vineis
Bert Brunekreef
Gerard Hoek
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Apr;154:226-233
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Austria - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Incidence
Italy - epidemiology
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Nitrogen Oxides - adverse effects - analysis
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution.
We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.
We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot) at baseline home addresses were estimated using land-use regression models from the ESCAPE project. We also investigated traffic density on the nearest road. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random-effects meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic density. In the meta-analysis, all exposures were associated with elevated HRs, but none of the associations reached statistical significance. The summary HR associated with a 10-µg/m(3) increase in NO2 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 0.76, 2.35) for a 5-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5.
The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures.
PubMed ID
28107740 View in PubMed
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An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261646
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:116
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Dorina Gabriela Karottki
Michal Spilak
Marie Frederiksen
Lars Gunnarsen
Elvira Vaclavik Brauner
Barbara Kolarik
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Torben Sigsgaard
Lars Barregard
Bo Strandberg
Gerd Sallsten
Peter Møller
Steffen Loft
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:116
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Biological Markers - blood
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena - drug effects
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cities
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark
Double-Blind Method
Female
Filtration
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Inflammation - blood - etiology
Intervention Studies
Lung - drug effects - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - analysis - toxicity
Respiratory Function Tests
Abstract
Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction.
We examined potential beneficial effects of indoor air filtration in the homes of elderly, including people taking vasoactive drugs.Forty-eight nonsmoking subjects (51 to 81 years) in 27 homes were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention study with consecutive two-week periods with or without the inclusion of a high-efficiency particle air filter in re-circulating custom built units in their living room and bedroom. We measured blood pressure, microvascular and lung function and collected blood samples for hematological, inflammation, monocyte surface and lung cell damage markers before and at day 2, 7 and 14 during each exposure scenario.
The particle filters reduced the median concentration of PM2.5 from approximately 8 to 4 µg/m3 and the particle number concentration from 7669 to 5352 particles/cm3. No statistically significant effects of filtration as category were observed on microvascular and lung function or the biomarkers of systemic inflammation among all subjects, or in the subgroups taking (n = 11) or not taking vasoactive drugs (n = 37). However, the filtration efficacy was variable and microvascular function was within 2 days significantly increased with the actual PM2.5 decrease in the bedroom, especially among 25 subjects not taking any drugs.
Substantial exposure contrasts in the bedroom and no confounding by drugs appear required for improved microvascular function by air filtration, whereas no other beneficial effect was found in this elderly population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24373585 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apparent temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125657
Source
Environ Health. 2012;11:19
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Janine Wichmann
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. jawic@sund.ku.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2012;11:19
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Aged
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been investigated as extensively as the effects of broader outcomes of morbidity and mortality. Sixteen studies reported inconsistent results and two considered confounding by air pollution. We addressed some of the methodological limitations of the previous studies in this study.
This is the first study of the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and AMI hospital admissions in Copenhagen. The study period covered 1 January 1999-31 December 2006, stratified in warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) periods. A case-crossover epidemiology study design was applied. Models were adjusted for public holidays and influenza, confounding by PM10, NO2 and CO was investigated, the lag and non-linear effects of Tapp(max) was examined, effect modification by age, sex and SES was explored, and the results of the case-crossover models were compared to those of the generalised additive Poisson time-series and generalised estimating equation models.
14,456 AMI hospital admissions (12,995 people) occurred during the study period. For an inter-quartile range (6 or 7°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 4% (95% CI:-2%; 10%) and 9% (95% CI: 3%; 14%) decrease in the AMI admission rate was observed in the warm and cold periods, respectively. The 19-65 year old group, men and highest SES group seemed to be more susceptible in the cold period.
An increase in Tapp(max) is associated with a decrease in AMI admissions during the colder months.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22463704 View in PubMed
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Apparent temperature and cause-specific emergency hospital admissions in greater copenhagen, denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101267
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22904
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Janine Wichmann
Zorana Andersen
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22904
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD), and cerebrovascular (CBD) emergency hospital admissions in Copenhagen, controlling for air pollution. The study period covered 1 January 2002-31 December 2006, stratified in warm and cold periods. A case-crossover design was applied. Susceptibility (effect modification) by age, sex, and socio-economic status was investigated. For an IQR (8°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13%) increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (-8%, 95% CI: -13%, -4%), and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max) during the cold period and any of the cause-specific admissions, except in some susceptible groups: a negative association for RD in the oldest age group and a positive association for CVD in men and the second highest SES group. In conclusion, an increase in Tapp(max) is associated with a slight increase in RD and decrease in CVD admissions during the warmer months.
PubMed ID
21829550 View in PubMed
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Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130287
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Janine Wichmann
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen DK-1014, Denmark. jawic@sund.ku.dk
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Humidity
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22016711 View in PubMed
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