The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (HF) are common clinical conditions that share tobacco as a risk factor. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD on HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. The study included 4132 HF patients (COPD, n = 699) from 22 hospitals (mean follow-up, 13.3 months). COPD patients were older, more often smokers and diabetics, less often on beta-blockers and had a higher heart rate. They were more often in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV (COPD, 63%; no COPD, 51%), although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) distribution was similar. COPD independently predicted death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.188; 95% CI: 1.015 to 1.391; P = 0.03) along with age, creatinine, NYHA Class III/IV (HR, 1.464; 95% CI: 1.286 to 1.667) and diabetes. beta-blockers at baseline were associated with improved survival in patients with LVEF
Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. A measure of echogenicity, the grey scale median (GSM), has been shown to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and to be predictive of mortality in a community-based cohort. We assessed the factors associated with carotid IM-GSM in younger, non-diabetic patients with a recent MI.
A total of 122 patients (women, 25%) aged 31-80 years (61) were recruited 2-3 days after an acute MI. Ultrasound examinations of the carotid arteries were performed 1-12 months after the MI. IMT was 0·78 (SD 0·17) mm on the right side and 0·81 (0·20) mm on the left side (P = 0·05). GSM was 88·60 (range 46-132, SD 18·32) on the right side and 82·10 (40-126, 17·89) on the left side (P = 0·002). Triglycerides (TG) correlated with GSM on both sides (right, r = -0·27, P = 0·003; left, r = -0·18, P = 0·05). On the right side, GSM was 92·15 and 82·26 (P = 0·05) in patients with TG
Controversy exists regarding whether all patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). We examined the association between ACEI treatment and mortality in a large, unselected population of patients with AMI. The present study included 105,224 patients with AMI who were not treated with ACEIs on admission. A logistic regression analysis, including 33 variables, calculated a propensity score for each patient to estimate the probability of receiving ACEIs at discharge, given the background. The association between ACEI treatment at discharge and the 1-year outcome was evaluated in prespecified subgroups using the Cox regression analyses, adjusting for the propensity score and medications at discharge. A total of 38,395 patients (36.5%) received ACEIs at discharge. After adjustment, ACEI treatment was associated with a 24% reduction in mortality (relative risk 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.80). The benefit was largest in patients with a history or present signs of heart failure. In patients without heart failure, a significant benefit of ACEI treatment was seen only in patients with renal dysfunction (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.88). In the whole group, the risk of AMI decreased by 7% (relative risk 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.96), with a larger effect seen in patients with ST-segment elevation AMI or systolic left ventricular dysfunction. In conclusion, in unselected patients with AMI, ACEI treatment was associated with a reduction in 1-year mortality, mainly in patients with heart failure or renal dysfunction, and a small reduction in the risk of reinfarction, mainly in patients with ST-segment elevation AMI or systolic left ventricular dysfunction.
Recent studies have suggested differences in outcome and treatment between men and women with heart failure. The aim of this study was to see if there were gender differences in the treatment and outcome in real life heart failure patients.
Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. Three-thousand-six-hundred-and-thirty-two patients (men, n = 2545 (70%), women, n = 1087 (30%)) were included in the study from January 2000 to February 2006. Patients were followed up until death or December 31 2006. The cohort was split into patients with an ejection fraction (EF) less and above 50% and genders were then compared.
In the group with EF = 50% the only difference between basic characteristics was that men had a lower heart rate. In the group with an EF
Several studies have shown training induced morphological changes in the heart. Our aim was to assess how frequent, low-intensity exercise (walking and cycling) influences heart function and morphology in abdominally obese women. Fifty women with abdominal obesity (mean age 47.0 +/- 7.5 years, waist circumference (WC) 103.2 +/- 7.8 cm), free of cardiovascular problems were recruited. They were equipped with a bicycle and pedometers and instructed to start commuting in a physically active way for 6 months. Evaluation of cardiac function and morphology was performed using echocardiography (ECHO) before and after 6 months of training. The subjects increased significantly their daily physical activity. After 6 months, there was a significant decrease in WC (from 103.3 +/- 7.9 to 100.8 +/- 8.4 cm, P = 0.0003), in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (126.8 +/- 15.2 to 120.4 +/- 14.5 mmHg, P = 0.0001, and 79.8 +/- 7.8 to 77.8 +/- 8.4 mmHg, P = 0.0006, respectively). ECHO showed an increase in the right ventricular (RV) systolic longitudinal function expressed as tricuspid annular motion from 22.00 +/- 3.30 to 23.05 +/- 3.59 mm, P = 0.015; and a similar trend in left ventricular (LV) mitral annular motion, which increased from 13.09 +/- 1.53 to 13.39 +/- 1.47 mm, P = 0.070. Cycling was associated with reductions in LV systolic and RV diastolic dimensions, whereas walking was not associated with any changes in the ECHO-variables. A reduction in WC by frequent, low-intensity exercise in abdominally obese women is associated with decrease in blood pressure and improved longitudinal RV systolic function.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity are both associated with endothelial dysfunction, which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. As obesity is highly prevalent in OSA, we wanted to test the hypothesis that OSA is associated with endothelial dysfunction independently of obesity.
Cross-sectional, population-based study.
Norwegian university hospital.
Seventy-one subjects (median age 44 years, 35% female) were recruited from a population-based study in Norway. Participants were categorised as obese (body mass index (BMI) =30 kg/m(2)), non-obese (BMI
OBJECTIVES: Prospective trials have established intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and cardiac left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between intima-media complex of the brachial artery to FMD, intima-media complex of the common carotid artery and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cross-sectional design. Procedures were undertaken within the Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. A total of 123 patients with a previous acute myocardial infarction (MI) were investigated. Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the brachial and common carotid arteries and FMD of the brachial artery and left ventricular dimensions were examined. RESULTS: The brachial cIMa was significantly associated with age, p-triglycerides, common carotid cIMa, ejection fraction, septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass index (P
We determined whether plasma levels of circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL; E06), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM autoantibodies binding to malonyldialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) may predict cardiovascular events (CVEs). Patients (n=123) with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) were included. The primary end point was defined as any of the following: cardiovascular death from any cause, nonfatal reinfarction or stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and hospitalization due to angina pectoris. There were 43 CVEs during the follow-up period of 8.4±3.5 years. There was no significant difference in the levels of E06 and MDA-LDL IgG between the CVE and the event-free group. However, MDA-LDL IgM levels were significantly lower in patients in the CVE group (9524±6326 relative light unit [RLU]) compared with the event-free (10,975±5398 RLU) group (P=.04). In conclusion, levels of MDA-LDL IgM were associated with an increased risk of CVE in patients with a previous MI.
The interest and awareness of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries (MINCA) have increased recently due to the frequent use of coronary angiography, the description of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy, and new sensitive troponin analyses. The prevalence of MINCA in all patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was registered during a 3-month period in the Stockholm metropolitan area in Sweden. The results showed that MINCA is more common than previously thought (7%) and affecting one third of every woman with MI. Patients with myocarditis were younger and more often presented with signs of inflammation such as elevated C-reactive protein and fever. Myocarditis constitutes an important differential diagnosis for coronary artery disease. There is a need for larger studies of MINCA, including investigation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, to establish prevalence and pathological process in this important subgroup of MI.