To examine the risk of death associated with antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
All patients admitted with AF in Denmark from 1995 to 2004 and their subsequent use of AADs were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to analyse the risk of death associated with AAD therapy. A total of 141,500 patients were included in the study; of these 3356 (2.4%) patients received treatment with flecainide, 3745 (2.6%) propafenone, 23,346 (16.5%) sotalol, and 10,376 (7.3%) amiodarone. Annualized mortality rates were 2.54, 4.25, 5.29, and 7.42 per year per 100 person years for flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, and amiodarone, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models did not show increased risk of death associated with any of the AADs. Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for flecainide 0.38 (0.32-0.44), propafenone 0.65 (0.58-0.71), sotalol 0.65 (0.63-0.67), and amiodarone 0.94 (0.89-1.00).
In an unselected cohort of patients with AF, antiarrhythmic treatment with flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, or amiodarone was not associated with increased risk of death. From a safety perspective, this indicates appropriate selection of patients for AAD therapy.
Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment of IgE-mediated allergic disease. Little is known about potential effects of SCIT on the risk of other chronic immune-related diseases. Over the years, a few casuistic reports have caused concern that SCIT might act as a trigger of autoimmune disease.
We aimed to investigate the association of SCIT with the incidence of autoimmune disease and ischemic heart disease (IHD), as well as all-cause mortality.
All Danish citizens without other known diseases were linked and followed through central registries on medications and hospital admissions. Persons receiving SCIT and persons receiving conventional allergy treatment (CAT; nasal steroids or oral antihistamines) were compared with regard to mortality and development of autoimmune diseases, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and IHD. Cox regression (survival analysis) with age as the underlying time scale was used to estimate relative risks (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% CIs) associated with SCIT compared with CAT adjusted for age, sex, vocational status, and income.
During the 10-year study period (1997-2006), a total of 18,841 and 428,484 persons were followed in the SCIT and CAT groups, respectively. Receiving SCIT was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.81) and lower incidence of AMI (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93), IHD (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73-1.05), and autoimmune disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99).
In this registry-based observational study, receiving SCIT compared with CAT was associated with lower risk of autoimmune disease and AMI, as well as decreased all-cause mortality.
Diabetes in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction (MI) increases morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the impact of obesity on the risk of developing diabetes in these populations.
A cohort of patients consecutively hospitalized with heart failure (n?=?3472) or MI (n?=?5723) was followed in the period 1995-2006.
Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate the risk of developing diabetes according to the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) classification. Normal weight patients (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg/m(2)) were used as the reference.
In both populations, more than half of the patients with a BMI above 34.9?kg/m(2) developed diabetes. In heart failure patients, a BMI above 24.9?kg/m(2) was associated with an increased risk of diabetes for the three BMI groups, i.e. 25.0-29.9?kg/m(2), 30.9-34.9?kg/m(2), and >34.9?kg/m(2), with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.50-3.12), 3.89 (2.61-5.78), and 6.06 (3.79-9.69), respectively. In MI patients, the adjusted HRs in the three corresponding BMI groups were 1.84 (1.44-2.37), 4.31 (3.26-5.69), and 9.50 (6.70-13.46), respectively. Incident diabetes was associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks with adjusted HRs of greater magnitude than in prevalent diabetes.
BMI was an independent predictor of incident diabetes in patients with either heart failure or MI. More than half of the patients with a BMI above 34.9?kg/m(2) developed diabetes during follow-up. Incident diabetes carries an increased mortality risk.
To evaluate risk of hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and repeat coronary angiography (CAG) in stable angina pectoris (SAP) with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) versus obstructive CAD, and asymptomatic reference individuals.
We followed 11,223 patients with no prior CVD having a first-time CAG in 1998-2009 due to SAP symptoms and 5,695 asymptomatic reference individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study through registry linkage for 7.8 years (median). In recurrent event survival analysis, patients with SAP had 3-4-fold higher risk of hospitalization for CVD irrespective of CAG findings and cardiovascular comorbidity. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios(95%CI) for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries was 3.0(2.5-3.5), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 3.9(3.3-4.6) and for 1-3-vessel disease 3.6-4.1(range)(all P
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Denmark and Sweden using routinely collected data and different case-fatality measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We compared three case-fatality measures during 1987-1999 using national registries in Denmark and Sweden, and extended these measures with underlying deaths of ischemic heart disease and sudden deaths of unknown cause. RESULTS: Changed coding practice distorted trends of case fatality rates during the day of the event. In general, Denmark had higher case-fatality rates, but trends in hospital-based rates were very similar, except for men 35-64 years old; Denmark declined more steeply. Short- and long-term prognosis improved considerably: the odds ratios for case fatality during days 1-28 for 1999 vs. 1987 were 0.48 among men in Denmark (women 0.58) and 0.53 among men in Sweden (women 0.55) and the odds ratios for case fatality during days 29-365 for 1999 vs. 1987 were 0.56 among men in Denmark (women 0.65) and 0.66 among men in Sweden (women 0.67). CONCLUSION: Short- and long-term prognosis improved considerably during 1987-1999 in Denmark and Sweden. Case fatality during the day of the event is epidemiologically important, but less certain than case-fatality measures defined after the day of the event when comparing countries.
AIMS: To analyse the effect of the change in diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the use of troponin as a diagnostic marker on the hospitalization rate and mortality of hospitalized AMI patients from 1994 to 2001. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (> or =30 years) admitted for their first AMI were identified using the National Patient Registry in Denmark. We registered when each hospital introduced troponin as a diagnostic marker. The reported hospitalization rate decreased until 1998 and then increased substantially from 1999 to 2001 from 3472 to 4163 per million inhabitants (19.9%) for men and from 1648 to 2020 per million inhabitants (22.6%) for women. Troponin use was associated with a significant 14% increase in hospitalization rate in this period [rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.18]. The effect of troponin was greatest among patients 70 years and older (rate ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.14-1.23). The 28 day mortality decreased steadily from 25.9% in 1994 to 17.5% in 2002 (32.4%) and was not affected by troponin use. CONCLUSION: The reported hospitalization rate for AMI increased significantly after the new diagnostic criteria for AMI were introduced. The measurement of cardiac troponins further increased the hospitalization rate. The mortality among hospitalized patients with AMI declined steadily and was not affected by the use of troponins.
The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology.
All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source for research.
The coverage is high (>95%) but some variables have many missing.
The combination of both cardiological and surgical data in this register is internationally unique and makes it possible to follow the patient from the invasive examination to treatment and by linkage to other registers to follow the prognosis.
Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study.
The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI.
Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens.
The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference) for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26) and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62) for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06).
We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.
Effects of oral glucose-lowering drugs on long term outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus following myocardial infarction not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention--a retrospective nationwide cohort study.
The optimum oral pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality following myocardial infarction has not been established. We therefore set out to investigate the association between individual oral glucose-lowering drugs and cardiovascular outcomes following myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention.
All patients aged 30 years or older receiving glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) and admitted with myocardial infarction (MI) not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in Denmark during 1997-2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity, and concomitant pharmacotherapy were used to assess differences in the composite endpoint of non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality between individual GLDs, using metformin monotherapy as reference.
The study comprised 9876 users of GLDs admitted with MI. The mean age was 72.3 years and 56.5% of patients were men. A total of 3649 received sulfonylureas and 711 received metformin at admission. The average length of follow-up was 2.2 (SD 2.6) years. A total of 6,171 patients experienced the composite study endpoint. The sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and/or nonfatal MI with hazard ratios [HRs] of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.46), 1.19 (1.06-1.32), 1.25 (1.11-1.42), and 1.18 (1.03-1.34), respectively, compared with metformin. Gliclazide was the only sulfonylurea not associated with increased risk compared with metformin (HR 1.03 [0.88-1.22]).
In patients with diabetes mellitus admitted with MI not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention, monotherapy treatment with the sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide was associated with increased cardiovascular risk compared with metformin monotherapy.
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